Infinispan server is a managed, distributed, and clusterable data grid that provides elastic scaling and high performance access to caches from multiple endpoints, such as Hot Rod and REST.

1. Getting Started with Infinispan Server

Quickly set up Infinispan Server and learn the basics.

Get started icon You can also visit our Get Started with Infinispan tutorial and run the server image in 4 easy steps.

1.1. Infinispan Server Requirements

Infinispan Server requires a Java Virtual Machine and works with Java 11 and later.

Infinispan Server does not support Java 8. However, you can use Java 8 with Hot Rod Java clients.

1.2. Downloading Server Distributions

The Infinispan server distribution is an archive of Java libraries (JAR files), configuration files, and a data directory.

Procedure
  1. Download Infinispan 12.1 Server from Infinispan downloads.

  2. Run the sha1sum command with the server download archive as the argument, for example:

    $ sha1sum infinispan-server-${version}.zip
  3. Compare with the SHA-1 checksum value on the Infinispan downloads page.

Reference

The Infinispan Server README, available in the distribution, provides example commands for running the server, describes folders in the $ISPN_HOME directory, and lists system properties you can use to customize the filesystem.

1.3. Installing Infinispan Server

Install the Infinispan Server distribution on a host system.

Prerequisites

Download a Infinispan Server distribution archive.

Procedure
  • Use any appropriate tool to extract the Infinispan Server archive to the host filesystem.

$ unzip infinispan-server-12.1.7.Final.zip

The resulting directory is your $ISPN_HOME.

1.4. Starting Infinispan Servers

Run Infinispan Server instances in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Prerequisites
  • Download and install the server distribution.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Start Infinispan Server instances with the server script.

    Linux
    $ bin/server.sh
    Microsoft Windows
    bin\server.bat

Infinispan Server is running successfully when it logs the following messages:

ISPN080004: Protocol SINGLE_PORT listening on 127.0.0.1:11222
ISPN080034: Server '...' listening on http://127.0.0.1:11222
ISPN080001: Infinispan Server <version> started in <mm>ms
Verification
  1. Open 127.0.0.1:11222/console/ in any browser.

  2. Enter your credentials at the prompt and continue to Infinispan Console.

1.5. Creating and Modifying Users

Add Infinispan user credentials and assign permissions to control access to data.

Infinispan server installations use a property realm to authenticate users for the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. This means you need to create at least one user before you can access Infinispan.

By default, users also need roles with permissions to access caches and interact with Infinispan resources. You can assign roles to users individually or add users to groups that have role permissions.

You create users and assign roles with the user command in the Infinispan command line interface (CLI).

Run help user from a CLI session to get complete command details.

1.5.1. Adding Credentials

You need an admin user for the Infinispan Console and full control over your Infinispan environment. For this reason you should create a user with admin permissions the first time you add credentials.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Create an admin user with the user create command in the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh user create myuser -p changeme -g admin

    Alternatively, the username "admin" automatically gets admin permissions.

    $ bin/cli.sh user create admin -p changeme
  3. Open user.properties and groups.properties with any text editor to verify users and groups.

    $ cat server/conf/users.properties
    
    #$REALM_NAME=default$
    #$ALGORITHM=encrypted$
    myuser=scram-sha-1\:BYGcIAwvf6b...
    
    $ cat server/conf/groups.properties
    
    myuser=admin

1.5.2. Assigning Roles to Users

Assign roles to users so they have the correct permissions to access data and modify Infinispan resources.

Procedure
  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.

    $ bin/cli.sh
  2. Assign the deployer role to "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=deployer katie
  3. List roles for "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls katie
    ["deployer"]

1.5.3. Adding Users to Groups

Groups let you change permissions for multiple users. You assign a role to a group and then add users to that group. Users inherit permissions from the group role.

Procedure
  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.

  2. Use the user create command to create a group.

    1. Specify "developers" as the group name with the --groups argument.

    2. Set a username and password for the group.

      In a property realm, a group is a special type of user that also requires a username and password.

      [//containers/default]> user create --groups=developers developers -p changeme
  3. List groups.

    [//containers/default]> user ls --groups
    ["developers"]
  4. Assign the application role to the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=application developers
  5. List roles for the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls developers
    ["application"]
  6. Add existing users, one at a time, to the group as required.

    [//containers/default]> user groups john --groups=developers

1.5.4. User Roles and Permissions

Infinispan includes a default set of roles that grant users with permissions to access data and interact with Infinispan resources.

ClusterRoleMapper is the default mechanism that Infinispan uses to associate security principals to authorization roles.

ClusterRoleMapper matches principal names to role names. A user named admin gets admin permissions automatically, a user named deployer gets deployer permissions, and so on.

Role Permissions Description

admin

ALL

Superuser with all permissions including control of the Cache Manager lifecycle.

deployer

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR, CREATE

Can create and delete Infinispan resources in addition to application permissions.

application

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR

Has read and write access to Infinispan resources in addition to observer permissions. Can also listen to events and execute server tasks and scripts.

observer

ALL_READ, MONITOR

Has read access to Infinispan resources in addition to monitor permissions.

monitor

MONITOR

Can view statistics via JMX and the metrics endpoint.

1.6. Verifying Cluster Views

Infinispan nodes on the same network automatically discover each other and form clusters.

Complete this procedure to observe cluster discovery with the MPING protocol in the default TCP stack with locally running Infinispan Server instances. If you want to adjust cluster transport for custom network requirements, see the documentation for setting up Infinispan clusters.

This procedure is intended to demonstrate the principle of cluster discovery and is not intended for production environments. Doing things like specifying a port offset on the command line is not a reliable way to configure cluster transport for production.

Prerequisites

Have one instance of Infinispan Server running.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Copy the root directory to server2.

    $ cp -r server server2
  3. Specify a port offset and the server2 directory.

    $ bin/server.sh -o 100 -s server2
Verification

You can view cluster membership in the console at 127.0.0.1:11222/console/cluster-membership.

Infinispan also logs the following messages when nodes join clusters:

INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN000094: Received new cluster view for channel cluster:
[<server_hostname>|3] (2) [<server_hostname>, <server2_hostname>]

INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN100000: Node <server2_hostname> joined the cluster

1.7. Shutting Down Infinispan Server

Stop individually running servers or bring down clusters gracefully.

Procedure
  1. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  2. Shut down Infinispan Server in one of the following ways:

    • Stop all nodes in a cluster with the shutdown cluster command, for example:

      [//containers/default]> shutdown cluster

      This command saves cluster state to the data folder for each node in the cluster. If you use a cache store, the shutdown cluster command also persists all data in the cache.

    • Stop individual server instances with the shutdown server command and the server hostname, for example:

      [//containers/default]> shutdown server <my_server01>

The shutdown server command does not wait for rebalancing operations to complete, which can lead to data loss if you specify multiple hostnames at the same time.

Run help shutdown for more details about using the command.

Verification

Infinispan logs the following messages when you shut down servers:

ISPN080002: Infinispan Server stopping
ISPN000080: Disconnecting JGroups channel cluster
ISPN000390: Persisted state, version=<$version> timestamp=YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS
ISPN080003: Infinispan Server stopped

1.7.1. Restarting Infinispan Clusters

When you bring Infinispan clusters back online after shutting them down, you should wait for the cluster to be available before adding or removing nodes or modifying cluster state.

If you shutdown clustered nodes with the shutdown server command, you must restart each server in reverse order.
For example, if you shutdown server1 and then shutdown server2, you should first start server2 and then start server1.

If you shutdown a cluster with the shutdown cluster command, clusters become fully operational only after all nodes rejoin.
You can restart nodes in any order but the cluster remains in DEGRADED state until all nodes that were joined before shutdown are running.

1.8. Infinispan Server Filesystem

Infinispan Server uses the following folders on the host filesystem under $ISPN_HOME:

├── bin
├── boot
├── docs
├── lib
├── server
└── static

See the Infinispan Server README, available in the distribution, for descriptions of the each folder in your $ISPN_HOME directory as well as system properties you can use to customize the filesystem.

1.8.1. Server Root Directory

Apart from resources in the bin and docs folders, the only folder under $ISPN_HOME that you should interact with is the server root directory, which is named server by default.

You can create multiple nodes under the same $ISPN_HOME directory or in different directories, but each Infinispan Server instance must have its own server root directory. For example, a cluster of 5 nodes could have the following server root directories on the filesystem:

├── server
├── server1
├── server2
├── server3
└── server4

Each server root directory should contain the following folders:

├── server
│   ├── conf
│   ├── data
│   ├── lib
│   └── log

server/conf

Holds infinispan.xml configuration files for a Infinispan Server instance.

Infinispan separates configuration into two layers:

Dynamic

Create mutable cache configurations for data scalability.
Infinispan Server permanently saves the caches you create at runtime along with the cluster state that is distributed across nodes. Each joining node receives a complete cluster state that Infinispan Server synchronizes across all nodes whenever changes occur.

Static

Add configuration to infinispan.xml for underlying server mechanisms such as cluster transport, security, and shared datasources.

server/data

Provides internal storage that Infinispan Server uses to maintain cluster state.

Never directly delete or modify content in server/data.

Modifying files such as caches.xml while the server is running can cause corruption. Deleting content can result in an incorrect state, which means clusters cannot restart after shutdown.

server/lib

Contains extension JAR files for custom filters, custom event listeners, JDBC drivers, custom ServerTask implementations, and so on.

server/log

Holds Infinispan Server log files.

2. Network Interfaces and Endpoints

Expose Infinispan Server through a network interface by binding it to an IP address. You can then configure endpoints to use the interface so Infinispan Server can handle requests from remote client applications.

By default, Infinispan Server exposes a single port that automatically detects the protocol of inbound requests.

2.1. Network Interfaces

Infinispan Server multiplexes endpoints to a single TCP/IP port and automatically detects protocols of inbound client requests. You can configure how Infinispan Server binds to network interfaces to listen for client requests.

Internet Protocol (IP) address
<!-- Selects a specific IPv4 address, which can be public, private, or loopback.
     This is the default network interface for Infinispan Server. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${infinispan.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Loopback address
<!-- Selects an IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 loopback address block. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <loopback/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Non-loopback address
<!-- Selects an IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 non-loopback address block. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <non-loopback/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Any address
<!-- Uses the `INADDR_ANY` wildcard address which means Infinispan Server
     listens for inbound client requests on all interfaces. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <any-address/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Link local
<!-- Selects a link-local IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 address block. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <link-local/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Site local
<!-- Selects a site-local (private) IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 address block. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <site-local/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

Match and fallback strategies

Infinispan Server can enumerate all network interfaces on the host system and bind to an interface, host, or IP address that matches a value, which can include regular expressions for additional flexibility.

Match host
<!-- Selects an IP address that is assigned to a matching host name. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Match interface
<!--Selects an IP address assigned to a matching network interface. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <match-interface value="eth0"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Match address
<!-- Selects an IP address that matches a regular expression. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <match-address value="132\..*"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>
Fallback
<!-- Includes multiple strategies that Infinispan Server tries in the
     declared order until it finds a match. -->
<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
    <match-address value="132\..*"/>
    <any-address/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

2.2. Socket Bindings

Socket bindings map endpoint connectors to server interfaces and ports.

By default, Infinispan servers provide the following socket bindings:

<socket-bindings default-interface="public" port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
    <socket-binding name="default" port="${infinispan.bind.port:11222}"/>
    <socket-binding name="memcached" port="11221"/>
</socket-bindings>
  • socket-bindings declares the default interface and port offset.

  • default binds to hotrod and rest connectors to the default port 11222.

  • memcached binds the memcached connector to port 11221.

    The memcached endpoint is disabled by default.

To override the default interface for socket-binding declarations, specify the interface attribute.

For example, you add an interface declaration named "private":

<interfaces>
  ...
  <interface name="private">
    <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

You can then specify interface="private" in a socket-binding declaration to bind to the private IP address, as follows:

<socket-bindings default-interface="public" port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
  ...
  <socket-binding name="private_binding" interface="private" port="1234"/>
</socket-bindings>

2.3. Changing the Default Bind Address for Infinispan Servers

You can use the server -b switch or the infinispan.bind.address system property to bind to a different address.

For example, bind the public interface to 127.0.0.2 as follows:

Linux
$ bin/server.sh -b 127.0.0.2
Windows
bin\server.bat -b 127.0.0.2

2.4. Specifying Port Offsets

Configure port offsets with Infinispan servers when running multiple instances on the same host. The default port offset is 0.

Use the -o switch with the Infinispan CLI or the infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset system property to set port offsets.

For example, start a server instance with an offset of 100 as follows. With the default configuration, this results in the Infinispan server listening on port 11322.

Linux
$ bin/server.sh -o 100
Windows
bin\server.bat -o 100

2.5. Infinispan Endpoints

Infinispan endpoints expose the CacheManager interface over different connector protocols so you can remotely access data and perform operations to manage and maintain Infinispan clusters.

You can define multiple endpoint connectors on different socket bindings.

2.5.1. Hot Rod

Hot Rod is a binary TCP client-server protocol designed to provide faster data access and improved performance in comparison to text-based protocols.

Infinispan provides Hot Rod client libraries in Java, C++, C#, Node.js and other programming languages.

Topology state transfer

Infinispan uses topology caches to provide clients with cluster views. Topology caches contain entries that map internal JGroups transport addresses to exposed Hot Rod endpoints.

When client send requests, Infinispan servers compare the topology ID in request headers with the topology ID from the cache. Infinispan servers send new topology views if client have older topology IDs.

Cluster topology views allow Hot Rod clients to immediately detect when nodes join and leave, which enables dynamic load balancing and failover.

In distributed cache modes, the consistent hashing algorithm also makes it possible to route Hot Rod client requests directly to primary owners.

2.5.2. REST

Infinispan exposes a RESTful interface that allows HTTP clients to access data, monitor and maintain clusters, and perform administrative operations.

You can use standard HTTP load balancers to provide clients with load balancing and failover capabilities. However, HTTP load balancers maintain static cluster views and require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

2.5.3. Memcached

Infinispan provides an implementation of the Memcached text protocol for remote client access.

The Memcached endpoint is deprecated and planned for removal in a future release.

The Infinispan Memcached endpoint supports clustering with replicated and distributed cache modes.

There are some Memcached client implementations, such as the Cache::Memcached Perl client, that can offer load balancing and failover detection capabilities with static lists of Infinispan server addresses that require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

2.5.4. Protocol Comparison

Hot Rod HTTP / REST Memcached

Topology-aware

Y

N

N

Hash-aware

Y

N

N

Encryption

Y

Y

N

Authentication

Y

Y

N

Conditional ops

Y

Y

Y

Bulk ops

Y

N

N

Transactions

Y

N

N

Listeners

Y

N

N

Query

Y

Y

N

Execution

Y

N

N

Cross-site failover

Y

N

N

2.6. Endpoint Connectors

You configure Infinispan server endpoints with connector declarations that specify socket bindings, authentication mechanisms, and encryption configuration.

The default endpoint connector configuration is as follows:

<endpoints socket-binding="default" security-realm="default"/>
  • endpoints contains endpoint connector declarations and defines global configuration for endpoints such as default socket bindings, security realms, and whether clients must present valid TLS certificates.

  • <hotrod-connector/> declares a Hot Rod connector.

  • <rest-connector/> declares a REST connector.

  • <memcached-connector socket-binding="memcached"/> declares a Memcached connector that uses the memcached socket binding.

Declaring an empty <endpoints/> element implicitly enables the Hot Rod and REST connectors.

It is possible to have multiple endpoints bound to different sockets. These can use different security realms and offer different authentication and encryption configurations. The following configuration enables two endpoints on distinct socket bindings, each one with a dedicated security realm. Additionally, the public endpoint disables administrative features, such as the console and CLI.

<endpoints socket-binding="public" security-realm="application-realm" admin="false">
   <hotrod-connector/>
   <rest-connector/>
</endpoints>
<endpoints socket-binding="private" security-realm="management-realm">
   <hotrod-connector/>
   <rest-connector/>
</endpoints>
Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available endpoint configuration.

2.6.1. Hot Rod Connectors

Hot Rod connector declarations enable Hot Rod servers.

<hotrod-connector name="hotrod">
  <topology-state-transfer />
  <authentication>
    <!-- Hot Rod endpoint authentication configuration. -->
  </authentication>
  <encryption>
    <!-- Hot Rod endpoint SSL/TLS encryption configuration. -->
  </encryption>
</hotrod-connector>
  • name="hotrod" logically names the Hot Rod connector. By default the name is derived from the socket binding name, for example hotrod-default.

  • topology-state-transfer tunes the state transfer operations that provide Hot Rod clients with cluster topology.

  • authentication configures SASL authentication mechanisms.

  • encryption configures TLS settings for client connections.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available Hot Rod connector configuration.

2.6.2. REST Connectors

REST connector declarations enable REST servers.

<rest-connector name="rest">
  <authentication>
    <!-- REST endpoint authentication configuration. -->
  </authentication>
  <cors-rules>
    <!-- Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) rules. -->
  </cors-rules>
  <encryption>
    <!-- REST endpoint SSL/TLS encryption configuration. -->
  </encryption>
</rest-connector>
  • name="rest" logically names the REST connector. By default the name is derived from the socket binding name, for example rest-default.

  • authentication configures authentication mechanisms.

  • cors-rules specifies CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) rules for cross-domain requests.

  • encryption configures TLS settings for client connections.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available REST connector configuration.

2.6.3. Memcached Connectors

Memcached connector declarations enable Memcached servers.

Infinispan servers do not enable Memcached connectors by default.

<memcached-connector name="memcached" socket-binding="memcached" cache="mycache" />
  • name="memcached" logically names the Memcached connector.

  • socket-binding="memcached" declares a unique socket binding for the Memcached connector.

  • cache="mycache" names the cache that the Memcached connector exposes. The default is memcachedCache.

    Memcached connectors expose a single cache only. To expose multiple caches through the Memcached endpoint, you must declare additional connectors. Each Memcached connector must also have a unique socket binding.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available Memcached connector configuration.

2.7. Infinispan Server Ports and Protocols

Infinispan Server exposes endpoints on your network for remote client access.

Port Protocol Description

11222

TCP

Hot Rod and REST endpoint

11221

TCP

Memcached endpoint, which is disabled by default.

2.8. Single Port

Infinispan Server exposes multiple protocols through a single TCP port, which is 11222 by default. Handling multiple protocols with a single port simplifies configuration and reduces management complexity when deploying Infinispan clusters. Using a single port also enhances security by minimizing the attack surface on the network.

Infinispan Server handles HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, and Hot Rod protocol requests from clients via the single port in different ways.

HTTP/1.1 upgrade headers

Client requests can include the HTTP/1.1 upgrade header field to initiate HTTP/1.1 connections with Infinispan Server. Client applications can then send the Upgrade: protocol header field, where protocol is a server endpoint.

Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)/Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Client requests include Server Name Indication (SNI) mappings for Infinispan Server endpoints to negotiate protocols over a TLS connection.

Applications must use a TLS library that supports the ALPN extension. Infinispan uses WildFly OpenSSL bindings for Java.

Automatic Hot Rod detection

Client requests that include Hot Rod headers automatically route to Hot Rod endpoints.

2.8.1. Configuring Network Firewalls for Remote Connections

Adjust any firewall rules to allow traffic between the server and external clients.

Procedure

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) workstations, for example, you can allow traffic to port 11222 with firewalld as follows:

# firewall-cmd --add-port=11222/tcp --permanent
success
# firewall-cmd --list-ports | grep 11222
11222/tcp

To configure firewall rules that apply across a network, you can use the nftables utility.

3. Security Realms

Security realms define identity, encryption, authentication, and authorization configuration for Infinispan Server endpoints.

3.1. Property Realms

Property realms use property files to define users and groups.

users.properties maps usernames to passwords in plain-text format. Passwords can also be pre-digested if you use the DIGEST-MD5 SASL mechanism or Digest HTTP mechanism.

myuser=a_password
user2=another_password

groups.properties maps users to roles.

myuser=supervisor,reader,writer
user2=supervisor
Endpoint authentication mechanisms

When you configure Infinispan Server to use a property realm, you can configure endpoints to use the following authentication mechanisms:

  • Hot Rod (SASL): PLAIN, DIGEST-*, and SCRAM-*

  • REST (HTTP): Basic and Digest

Property realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <!-- Defines groups as roles for server authorization. -->
         <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
            <!-- Specifies the properties file that holds usernames and passwords. -->
            <!-- The plain-text="true" attribute stores passwords in plain text. -->
            <user-properties path="users.properties"
                             relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                             plain-text="true"/>
            <!-- Specifies the properties file that defines roles for users. -->
            <group-properties path="groups.properties"
                              relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"/>
         </properties-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

3.1.1. Creating and Modifying Users

Add Infinispan user credentials and assign permissions to control access to data.

Infinispan server installations use a property realm to authenticate users for the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. This means you need to create at least one user before you can access Infinispan.

By default, users also need roles with permissions to access caches and interact with Infinispan resources. You can assign roles to users individually or add users to groups that have role permissions.

You create users and assign roles with the user command in the Infinispan command line interface (CLI).

Run help user from a CLI session to get complete command details.

Adding Credentials

You need an admin user for the Infinispan Console and full control over your Infinispan environment. For this reason you should create a user with admin permissions the first time you add credentials.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Create an admin user with the user create command in the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh user create myuser -p changeme -g admin

    Alternatively, the username "admin" automatically gets admin permissions.

    $ bin/cli.sh user create admin -p changeme
  3. Open user.properties and groups.properties with any text editor to verify users and groups.

    $ cat server/conf/users.properties
    
    #$REALM_NAME=default$
    #$ALGORITHM=encrypted$
    myuser=scram-sha-1\:BYGcIAwvf6b...
    
    $ cat server/conf/groups.properties
    
    myuser=admin
Assigning Roles to Users

Assign roles to users so they have the correct permissions to access data and modify Infinispan resources.

Procedure
  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.

    $ bin/cli.sh
  2. Assign the deployer role to "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=deployer katie
  3. List roles for "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls katie
    ["deployer"]
Adding Users to Groups

Groups let you change permissions for multiple users. You assign a role to a group and then add users to that group. Users inherit permissions from the group role.

Procedure
  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.

  2. Use the user create command to create a group.

    1. Specify "developers" as the group name with the --groups argument.

    2. Set a username and password for the group.

      In a property realm, a group is a special type of user that also requires a username and password.

      [//containers/default]> user create --groups=developers developers -p changeme
  3. List groups.

    [//containers/default]> user ls --groups
    ["developers"]
  4. Assign the application role to the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=application developers
  5. List roles for the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls developers
    ["application"]
  6. Add existing users, one at a time, to the group as required.

    [//containers/default]> user groups john --groups=developers

3.2. LDAP Realms

LDAP realms connect to LDAP servers, such as OpenLDAP, Red Hat Directory Server, Apache Directory Server, or Microsoft Active Directory, to authenticate users and obtain membership information.

LDAP servers can have different entry layouts, depending on the type of server and deployment. It is beyond the scope of this document to provide examples for all possible configurations.

Endpoint authentication mechanisms

When you configure Infinispan Server to use an LDAP realm, you can configure endpoints to use the following authentication mechanisms:

  • Hot Rod (SASL): PLAIN, DIGEST-*, and SCRAM-*

  • REST (HTTP): Basic and Digest

LDAP realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <!-- Names an LDAP realm and specifies connection properties. -->
        <ldap-realm name="ldap"
                    url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                    credential="strongPassword"
                    connection-timeout="3000"
                    read-timeout="30000"
                    connection-pooling="true"
                    referral-mode="ignore"
                    page-size="30"
                    direct-verification="true">
            <!-- Defines how principals are mapped to LDAP entries. -->
            <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                              search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                              search-recursive="false">
               <!-- Retrieves all the groups of which the user is a member. -->
               <attribute-mapping>
                  <attribute from="cn"
                             to="Roles"
                             filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                             filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"/>
               </attribute-mapping>
            </identity-mapping>
         </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

The principal for LDAP connections must have necessary privileges to perform LDAP queries and access specific attributes.

As an alternative to verifying user credentials with the direct-verification attribute, you can specify an LDAP password with the user-password-mapper element.

The rdn-identifier attribute specifies an LDAP attribute that finds the user entry based on a provided identifier, which is typically a username; for example, the uid or sAMAccountName attribute. Add search-recursive="true" to the configuration to search the directory recursively. By default, the search for the user entry uses the (rdn_identifier={0}) filter. Specify a different filter with the filter-name attribute.

The attribute-mapping element retrieves all the groups of which the user is a member. There are typically two ways in which membership information is stored:

  • Under group entries that usually have class groupOfNames in the member attribute. In this case, you can use an attribute filter as in the preceding example configuration. This filter searches for entries that match the supplied filter, which locates groups with a member attribute equal to the user’s DN. The filter then extracts the group entry’s CN as specified by from, and adds it to the user’s Roles.

  • In the user entry in the memberOf attribute. In this case you should use an attribute reference such as the following:

    <attribute-reference reference="memberOf" from="cn" to="Roles" />

    This reference gets all memberOf attributes from the user’s entry, extracts the CN as specified by from, and adds them to the user’s Roles.

3.2.1. LDAP Realm Principal Rewriting

Some SASL authentication mechanisms, such as GSSAPI, GS2-KRB5 and Negotiate, supply a username that needs to be cleaned up before you can use it to search LDAP servers.

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <ldap-realm name="ldap"
                     url="ldap://${org.infinispan.test.host.address}:10389"
                     principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                     credential="strongPassword">
            <name-rewriter>
               <!-- Defines a rewriter that extracts the username from the principal using a regular expression. -->
               <regex-principal-transformer name="domain-remover"
                                            pattern="(.*)@INFINISPAN\.ORG"
                                            replacement="$1"/>
            </name-rewriter>
            <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                              search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org">
               <attribute-mapping>
                  <attribute from="cn" to="Roles"
                             filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                             filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org" />
               </attribute-mapping>
               <user-password-mapper from="userPassword" />
            </identity-mapping>
         </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

3.3. Token Realms

Token realms use external services to validate tokens and require providers that are compatible with RFC-7662 (OAuth2 Token Introspection), such as KeyCloak.

Endpoint authentication mechanisms

When you configure Infinispan Server to use a token realm, you must configure endpoints to use the following authentication mechanisms:

  • Hot Rod (SASL): OAUTHBEARER

  • REST (HTTP): Bearer

Token realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <!-- Specifies the URL of the authentication server. -->
         <token-realm name="token"
                      auth-server-url="https://oauth-server/auth/">
            <!-- Specifies the URL of the token introspection endpoint. -->
            <oauth2-introspection
                    introspection-url="https://oauth-server/auth/realms/infinispan/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect"
                    client-id="infinispan-server"
                    client-secret="1fdca4ec-c416-47e0-867a-3d471af7050f"/>
         </token-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

3.4. Trust Store Realms

Trust store realms use certificates, or certificates chains, that verify Infinispan Server and client identities when they negotiate connections.

Keystores

Contain server certificates that provide a Infinispan Server identity to clients. If you configure a keystore with server certificates, Infinispan Server encrypts traffic using industry standard SSL/TLS protocols.

Trust stores

Contain client certificates, or certificate chains, that clients present to Infinispan Server. Client trust stores are optional and allow Infinispan Server to perform client certificate authentication.

Client certificate authentication

You must add the require-ssl-client-auth="true" attribute to the endpoint configuration if you want Infinispan Server to validate or authenticate client certificates.

Endpoint authentication mechanisms

If you configure Infinispan Server with a keystore only, you can use encryption in combination with any authentication mechanism.

When you configure Infinispan Server to use a client trust store, you must configure endpoints to use the following authentication mechanisms:

  • Hot Rod (SASL): EXTERNAL

  • REST (HTTP): CLIENT_CERT

Trust store realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <!-- Provides an SSL/TLS identity with a keystore that
                    contains server certificates. -->
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret"
                         alias="server"/>
               <!-- Configures a trust store that contains client certificates
                    or part of a certificate chain. -->
               <truststore path="trust.p12"
                           relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                           password="secret"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
         <!-- Authenticates client certificates against the trust store.
              If you configure this, the trust store must contain
              the public certificates for all clients. -->
         <truststore-realm/>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
<!-- Configures Infinispan Server to require client certificates
     with the "require-ssl-client-auth" attribute. -->
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default"
           require-ssl-client-auth="true">
   <hotrod-connector>
     <!-- Configures the Hot Rod endpoint for client certificate authentication. -->
     <authentication>
       <sasl mechanisms="EXTERNAL"
             server-name="infinispan"
             qop="auth"/>
     </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
   <rest-connector>
      <!-- Configures the REST endpoint for client certificate authentication. -->
      <authentication mechanisms="CLIENT_CERT"/>
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>

4. Configuring Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Configure Hot Rod and REST connectors with SASL or HTTP authentication mechanisms to authenticate with clients.

Infinispan servers require user authentication to access the command line interface (CLI) and console as well as the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. Infinispan servers also automatically configure authentication mechanisms based on the security realms that you define.

4.1. Infinispan Server Authentication

Infinispan servers automatically configure authentication mechanisms based on the security realm that you assign to endpoints.

SASL Authentication Mechanisms

The following SASL authentication mechanisms apply to Hot Rod endpoints:

Security Realm SASL Authentication Mechanism

Property Realms and LDAP Realms

SCRAM-*, DIGEST-*, CRAM-MD5

Token Realms

OAUTHBEARER

Trust Realms

EXTERNAL

Kerberos Identities

GSSAPI, GS2-KRB5

SSL/TLS Identities

PLAIN

HTTP Authentication Mechanisms

The following HTTP authentication mechanisms apply to REST endpoints:

Security Realm HTTP Authentication Mechanism

Property Realms and LDAP Realms

DIGEST

Token Realms

BEARER_TOKEN

Trust Realms

CLIENT_CERT

Kerberos Identities

SPNEGO

SSL/TLS Identities

BASIC

Default Configuration

Infinispan servers provide a security realm named "default" that uses a property realm with plain text credentials defined in $ISPN_HOME/server/ conf/users.properties, as shown in the following snippet:

<security-realm name="default">
  <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
    <user-properties path="users.properties"
                     relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                     plain-text="true"/>
    <group-properties path="groups.properties"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path" />
  </properties-realm>
</security-realm>

The endpoints configuration assigns the "default" security realm to the Hot Rod and REST connectors, as follows:

<endpoints socket-binding="default" security-realm="default">
  <hotrod-connector name="hotrod"/>
  <rest-connector name="rest"/>
</endpoints>

As a result of the preceding configuration, Infinispan servers require authentication with a mechanism that the property realm supports.

4.2. Manually Configuring Hot Rod Authentication

Explicitly configure Hot Rod connector authentication to override the default SASL authentication mechanisms that Infinispan servers use for security realms.

Procedure
  1. Add an authentication definition to the Hot Rod connector configuration.

  2. Specify which Infinispan security realm the Hot Rod connector uses for authentication.

  3. Specify the SASL authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod endpoint to use.

  4. Configure SASL authentication properties as appropriate.

4.2.1. Hot Rod Authentication Configuration

Hot Rod connector with SCRAM, DIGEST, and PLAIN authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1
           https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default">
   <hotrod-connector>
      <authentication>
         <!-- Specifies SASL mechanisms to use for authentication. -->
         <!-- Defines the name that the server declares to clients. -->
         <sasl mechanisms="SCRAM-SHA-512 SCRAM-SHA-384 SCRAM-SHA-256
                           SCRAM-SHA-1 DIGEST-SHA-512 DIGEST-SHA-384
                           DIGEST-SHA-256 DIGEST-SHA DIGEST-MD5 PLAIN"
               server-name="infinispan"
               qop="auth"/>
      </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
</endpoints>
Hot Rod connector with Kerberos authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default">
   <hotrod-connector>
      <authentication>
         <!-- Enables the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 mechanisms for Kerberos authentication. -->
         <!-- Defines the server name, which is equivalent to the Kerberos service name, and specifies the Kerberos identity for the server. -->
         <sasl mechanisms="GSSAPI GS2-KRB5"
               server-name="datagrid"
               server-principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"/>
      </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
</endpoints>

4.2.2. Hot Rod Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Infinispan supports the following SASL authentications mechanisms with the Hot Rod connector:

Authentication mechanism Description Related details

PLAIN

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use PLAIN authentication with encrypted connections only.

Similar to the Basic HTTP mechanism.

DIGEST-*

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support DIGEST-MD5, DIGEST-SHA, DIGEST-SHA-256, DIGEST-SHA-384, and DIGEST-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

SCRAM-*

Uses salt values in addition to hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support SCRAM-SHA, SCRAM-SHA-256, SCRAM-SHA-384, and SCRAM-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

GSSAPI

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

GS2-KRB5

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

EXTERNAL

Uses client certificates.

Similar to the CLIENT_CERT HTTP mechanism.

OAUTHBEARER

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Similar to the BEARER_TOKEN HTTP mechanism.

4.2.3. SASL Quality of Protection (QoP)

If SASL mechanisms support integrity and privacy protection settings, you can add them to your Hot Rod connector configuration with the qop attribute.

QoP setting Description

auth

Authentication only.

auth-int

Authentication with integrity protection.

auth-conf

Authentication with integrity and privacy protection.

4.2.4. SASL Policies

SASL policies let you control which authentication mechanisms Hot Rod connectors can use.

Policy Description Default value

forward-secrecy

Use only SASL mechanisms that support forward secrecy between sessions. This means that breaking into one session does not automatically provide information for breaking into future sessions.

false

pass-credentials

Use only SASL mechanisms that require client credentials.

false

no-plain-text

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to simple plain passive attacks.

false

no-active

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to active, non-dictionary, attacks.

false

no-dictionary

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to passive dictionary attacks.

false

no-anonymous

Do not use SASL mechanisms that accept anonymous logins.

true

Infinispan cache authorization restricts access to caches based on roles and permissions. If you configure cache authorization, you can then set <no-anonymous value=false /> to allow anonymous login and delegate access logic to cache authorization.

Hot Rod connector with SASL policy configuration
<hotrod-connector socket-binding="hotrod" cache-container="default">
   <authentication security-realm="ApplicationRealm">
      <!-- Specifies multiple SASL authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod connector. -->
      <sasl server-name="myhotrodserver"
            mechanisms="PLAIN DIGEST-MD5 GSSAPI EXTERNAL"
            qop="auth">
         <!-- Defines policies for SASL mechanisms. -->
         <policy>
            <no-active value="true" />
            <no-anonymous value="true" />
            <no-plain-text value="true" />
         </policy>
      </sasl>
   </authentication>
</hotrod-connector>

As a result of the preceding configuration, the Hot Rod connector uses the GSSAPI mechanism because it is the only mechanism that complies with all policies.

4.3. Manually Configuring REST Authentication

Explicitly configure REST connector authentication to override the default HTTP authentication mechanisms that Infinispan servers use for security realms.

Procedure
  1. Add an authentication definition to the REST connector configuration.

  2. Specify which Infinispan security realm the REST connector uses for authentication.

  3. Specify the authentication mechanisms for the REST endpoint to use.

4.3.1. REST Authentication Configuration

REST connector with BASIC and DIGEST authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default">
   <rest-connector>
      <!-- Specifies SASL mechanisms to use for authentication. -->
      <authentication mechanisms="DIGEST BASIC"/>
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>
REST connector with Kerberos authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default">
   <rest-connector>
      <!-- Enables the `SPENGO` mechanism for Kerberos authentication and specifies an identity for the server. -->
      <authentication mechanisms="SPNEGO"
                      server-principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"/>
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>

4.3.2. REST Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Infinispan supports the following authentications mechanisms with the REST connector:

Authentication mechanism Description Related details

BASIC

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use BASIC authentication with encrypted connections only.

Corresponds to the Basic HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the PLAIN SASL mechanism.

DIGEST

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. REST connectors support SHA-512, SHA-256 and MD5 hashing algorithms.

Corresponds to the Digest HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to DIGEST-* SASL mechanisms.

SPNEGO

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Corresponds to the Negotiate HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 SASL mechanisms.

BEARER_TOKEN

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Corresponds to the Bearer HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to OAUTHBEARER SASL mechanism.

CLIENT_CERT

Uses client certificates.

Similar to the EXTERNAL SASL mechanism.

4.4. Disabling Authentication

In local development environments or on isolated networks you can configure Infinispan to allow unauthenticated client requests.

When you disable user authentication you should also disable authorization in your Infinispan security configuration.

Procedure
  1. Open infinispan.xml for editing.

  2. Remove any security-realm attributes from the endpoints configuration.

  3. Ensure that the Hot Rod and REST connectors do not include any authentication configuration.

    For example, the following configuration allows unauthenticated access to Infinispan:

    <endpoints socket-binding="default">
      <hotrod-connector name="hotrod"/>
      <rest-connector name="rest"/>
    </endpoints>
  4. Remove any authorization elements from the security configuration for the cache-container and each cache configuration.

5. Encrypting Infinispan Server Connections

You can secure Infinispan Server connections using SSL/TLS encryption by configuring a keystore that contains public and private keys for Infinispan. You can also configure client certificate authentication if you require mutual TLS.

5.1. Configuring Infinispan Server Keystores

Add keystores to Infinispan Server and configure it to present SSL/TLS certificates that verify its identity to clients. If a security realm contains TLS/SSL identities, it encrypts any connections to Infinispan Server endpoints that use that security realm.

Prerequisites
  • Create a keystore that contains certificates, or certificate chains, for Infinispan Server.

Infinispan Server supports the following keystore formats: JKS, JCEKS, PKCS12, BKS, BCFKS, and UBER.

In production environments, server certificates should be signed by a trusted Certificate Authority, either Root or Intermediate CA.

Procedure
  1. Add the keystore that contains SSL/TLS identities for Infinispan Server to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

  2. Add a server-identities definition to the Infinispan Server security realm.

  3. Specify the keystore file name with the path attribute.

  4. Provide the keystore password and certificate alias with the keystore-password and alias attributes.

Infinispan Server keystore configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <!-- Adds a keystore that contains server certificates
                    that provide SSL/TLS identities to clients. -->
               <keystore path="server.pfx"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret"
                         alias="rhdg-server"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
Next steps

Configure clients with a trust store so they can verify SSL/TLS identities for Infinispan Server.

5.1.1. Automatically Generating Keystores

Configure Infinispan servers to automatically generate keystores at startup.

Automatically generated keystores:

  • Should not be used in production environments.

  • Are generated whenever necessary; for example, while obtaining the first connection from a client.

  • Contain certificates that you can use directly in Hot Rod clients.

Procedure
  1. Include the generate-self-signed-certificate-host attribute for the keystore element in the server configuration.

  2. Specify a hostname for the server certificate as the value.

SSL server identity with a generated keystore
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <!-- Generates a keystore that includes a self-signed certificate with the specified hostname. -->
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret"
                         alias="server"
                         generate-self-signed-certificate-host="localhost"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

5.1.2. Configuring TLS versions and cipher suites

When using SSL/TLS encryption to secure your deployment, you can configure Infinispan Server to use specific versions of the TLS protocol as well as specific cipher suites within the protocol.

Procedure
  1. Add the engine element to the SSL configuration for Infinispan Server.

  2. Configure Infinispan to use one or more TLS versions with the enabled-protocols attribute.

    Infinispan Server supports TLS version 1.2 and 1.3 by default. If appropriate you can set TLSv1.3 only to restrict the security protocol for client connections. Infinispan does not recommend enabling TLSv1.1 because it is an older protocol with limited support and provides weak security. You should never enable any version of TLS older than 1.1.

    If you modify the SSL engine configuration for Infinispan Server you must explicitly configure TLS versions with the enabled-protocols attribute. Omitting the enabled-protocols attribute allows any TLS version.

    <engine enabled-protocols="TLSv1.3 TLSv1.2" />
  3. Configure Infinispan to use one or more cipher suites with the enabled-ciphersuites attribute.

    You must ensure that you set a cipher suite that supports any protocol features you plan to use; for example HTTP/2 ALPN.

SSL engine configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1
          https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret" alias="server"/>
               <!-- Configures Infinispan Server to use specific TLS versions and cipher suites. -->
               <engine enabled-protocols="TLSv1.3"
                       enabled-ciphersuites="TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 TLS_AES_128_CCM_8_SHA256"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

5.2. Configuring Client Certificate Authentication

Configure Infinispan Server to use mutual TLS to secure client connections.

You can configure Infinispan to verify client identities from certificates in a trust store in two ways:

  • Require a trust store that contains only the signing certificate, which is typically a Certificate Authority (CA). Any client that presents a certificate signed by the CA can connect to Infinispan.

  • Require a trust store that contains all client certificates in addition to the signing certificate. Only clients that present a signed certificate that is present in the trust store can connect to Infinispan.

Alternatively to providing trust stores you can use shared system certificates.

Prerequisites
  • Create a client trust store that contains either the CA certificate or all public certificates.

  • Create a keystore for Infinispan Server and configure an SSL/TLS identity.

Procedure
  1. Add the require-ssl-client-auth="true" parameter to your endpoints configuration.

  2. Add the client trust store to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

  3. Specify the path and password attributes for the truststore element in the Infinispan Server security realm configuration.

  4. Add the <truststore-realm/> element to the security realm if you want Infinispan Server to authenticate each client certificate.

Infinispan Server trust store realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <!-- Provides an SSL/TLS identity with a keystore that
                    contains server certificates. -->
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret"
                         alias="server"/>
               <!-- Configures a trust store that contains client certificates
                    or part of a certificate chain. -->
               <truststore path="trust.p12"
                           relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                           password="secret"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
         <!-- Authenticates client certificates against the trust store.
              If you configure this, the trust store must contain
              the public certificates for all clients. -->
         <truststore-realm/>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
<!-- Configures Infinispan Server to require client certificates
     with the "require-ssl-client-auth" attribute. -->
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1"
           socket-binding="default"
           security-realm="default"
           require-ssl-client-auth="true">
   <hotrod-connector>
     <!-- Configures the Hot Rod endpoint for client certificate authentication. -->
     <authentication>
       <sasl mechanisms="EXTERNAL"
             server-name="infinispan"
             qop="auth"/>
     </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
   <rest-connector>
      <!-- Configures the REST endpoint for client certificate authentication. -->
      <authentication mechanisms="CLIENT_CERT"/>
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>
Next steps
  • Set up authorization with client certificates in the Infinispan Server configuration if you control access with security roles and permissions.

  • Configure clients to negotiate SSL/TLS connections with Infinispan Server.

Additional resources

5.3. Configuring Authorization with Client Certificates

Enabling client certificate authentication means you do not need to specify Infinispan user credentials in client configuration, which means you must associate roles with the Common Name (CN) field in the client certificate(s).

Prerequisites
  • Provide clients with a Java keystore that contains either their public certificates or part of the certificate chain, typically a public CA certificate.

  • Configure Infinispan Server to perform client certificate authentication.

Procedure
  1. Enable the common-name-role-mapper in the security authorization configuration.

  2. Assign the Common Name (CN) from the client certificate a role with the appropriate permissions.

    <cache-container name="certificate-authentication" statistics="true">
       <security>
         <authorization>
           <!-- Declare a role mapper that associates the common name (CN) field
                in client certificate trust stores with authorization roles. -->
           <common-name-role-mapper/>
           <!-- In this example, if a client certificate contains `CN=Client1` then
                clients with matching certificates get ALL permissions. -->
           <role name="Client1" permissions="ALL"/>
         </authorization>
       </security>
    </cache-container>

6. Configuring Kerberos Identities for Infinispan Server

Provide Infinispan Server endpoints with Kerberos identities to secure connections with clients.

6.1. Setting Up Kerberos Identities

Kerberos identities use keytab files that contain service principal names and encrypted keys, derived from Kerberos passwords.

keytab files can contain both user and service account principals. However, Infinispan servers use service account principals only. As a result, Infinispan servers can provide identity to clients and allow clients to authenticate with Kerberos servers.

In most cases, you create unique principals for the Hot Rod and REST connectors. For example, you have a "datagrid" server in the "INFINISPAN.ORG" domain. In this case you should create the following service principals:

  • hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the Hot Rod service.

  • HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the REST service.

Procedure
  1. Create keytab files for the Hot Rod and REST services.

    Linux
    $ ktutil
    ktutil:  addent -password -p datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -k 1 -e aes256-cts
    Password for datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG: [enter your password]
    ktutil:  wkt http.keytab
    ktutil:  quit
    Microsoft Windows
    $ ktpass -princ HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -pass * -mapuser INFINISPAN\USER_NAME
    $ ktab -k http.keytab -a HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG
  2. Copy the keytab files to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

  3. Add a server-identities definition to the Infinispan server security realm.

  4. Specify the location of keytab files that provide service principals to Hot Rod and REST connectors.

  5. Name the Kerberos service principals.

6.2. Kerberos Identity Configuration

The following example configures Kerberos identities for Infinispan Server:

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <!-- Specifies a keytab file that provides a Kerberos identity for the Hot Rod connector. -->
            <!-- Names the Kerberos service principal for the Hot Rod connector. -->
            <!-- The required="true" attribute specifies that the keytab file must be present when the server starts. -->
            <kerberos keytab-path="hotrod.keytab"
                      principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"
                      required="true"/>
            <!-- Specifies a keytab file that provides a Kerberos identity for the REST connector. -->
            <!-- Names the Kerberos service principal for the REST connector. -->
            <kerberos keytab-path="http.keytab"
                      principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"
                      required="true"/>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

7. Storing Infinispan Server Credentials in Keystores

External services require credentials to authenticate with Infinispan Server. To protect sensitive text strings such as passwords, add them to a credential keystore rather than directly in Infinispan Server configuration files.

You can then configure Infinispan Server to decrypt passwords for establishing connections with services such as databases or LDAP directories.

Plain-text passwords in $ISPN_HOME/server/conf are unencrypted. Any user account with read access to the host filesystem can view plain-text passwords.

While credential keystores are password-protected store encrypted passwords, any user account with write access to the host filesystem can tamper with the keystore itself.

To completely secure Infinispan Server credentials, you should grant read-write access only to user accounts that can configure and run Infinispan Server.

7.1. Setting Up Credential Keystores

Create keystores that encrypt credential for Infinispan Server access.

A credential keystore contains at least one alias that is associated with an encrypted password. After you create a keystore, you specify the alias in a connection configuration such as a database connection pool. Infinispan Server then decrypts the password for that alias from the keystore when the service attempts authentication.

You can create as many credential keystores with as many aliases as required.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Create a keystore and add credentials to it with the credentials command.

    By default, keystores are of type PKCS12. Run help credentials for details on changing keystore defaults.

    The following example shows how to create a keystore that contains an alias of "dbpassword" for the password "changeme". When you create a keystore you also specify a password for the keystore with the -p argument.

    Linux
    $ bin/cli.sh credentials add dbpassword -c changeme -p "secret1234!"
    Microsoft Windows
    $ bin\cli.bat credentials add dbpassword -c changeme -p "secret1234!"
  3. Check that the alias is added to the keystore.

    $ bin/cli.sh credentials ls -p "secret1234!"
    dbpassword
  4. Configure Infinispan to use the credential keystore.

    1. Specify the name and location of the credential keystore in the credential-stores configuration.

    2. Provide the credential keystore and alias in the credential-reference configuration.

      Attributes in the credential-reference configuration are optional.

      • store is required only if you have multiple keystores.

      • alias is required only if the keystore contains multiple aliases.

7.2. Credential Keystore Configuration

Review example configurations for credential keystores in Infinispan Server configuration.

Credential keystore
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <!-- Uses a keystore to manage server credentials. -->
   <credential-stores>
      <!-- Specifies the name and filesystem location of a keystore. -->
      <credential-store name="credentials" path="credentials.pfx">
         <!-- Specifies the password for the credential keystore. -->
         <clear-text-credential clear-text="secret1234!"/>
      </credential-store>
   </credential-stores>
</security>
Datasource connection
<data-sources xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
              xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
              xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <data-source name="postgres" jndi-name="jdbc/postgres">
      <!-- Specifies the database username in the connection factory. -->
      <connection-factory driver="org.postgresql.Driver"
                          username="dbuser"
                          url="${org.infinispan.server.test.postgres.jdbcUrl}">
         <!-- Specifies the credential keystore that contains an encrypted password and the alias for it. -->
         <credential-reference store="credentials" alias="dbpassword"/>
      </connection-factory>
      <connection-pool max-size="10" min-size="1" background-validation="1000" idle-removal="1" initial-size="1" leak-detection="10000"/>
   </data-source>
</data-sources>
LDAP connection
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:12.1 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-12.1.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:12.1">
   <credential-stores>
      <credential-store name="credentials" path="credentials.pfx">
         <clear-text-credential clear-text="secret1234!"/>
      </credential-store>
   </credential-stores>
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <!-- Specifies the LDAP principal in the connection factory. -->
         <ldap-realm name="ldap" url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
                     principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                     connection-timeout="3000"
                     read-timeout="30000"
                     connection-pooling="true"
                     referral-mode="ignore"
                     page-size="30">
            <!-- Specifies the credential keystore that contains an encrypted password and the alias for it. -->
            <credential-reference store="credentials" alias="ldappassword"/>
         </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>

8. Endpoint IP Filtering

Configure IP Filtering rules on the endpoints to accept or reject connections based on the client address.

8.1. Infinispan Server IP Filter Configuration

Infinispan endpoints and connectors can specify one or more IP filtering rules. These rules specify the type of action to take when a client which matches a supplied CIDR block connects. IP filtering rules are applied in order up until the first one that matches.

A CIDR block is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated network mask. CIDR notation specifies an IP address, a slash ('/') character, and a decimal number. The decimal number is the count of leading 1 bits in the network mask. The number can also be thought of as the width, in bits, of the network prefix. The IP address in CIDR notation is always represented according to the standards for IPv4 or IPv6.

The address can denote a specific interface address, including a host identifier, such as 10.0.0.1/8, or it can be the beginning address of an entire network interface range using a host identifier of 0, as in 10.0.0.0/8 or 10/8.

For example:

  • 192.168.100.14/24 represents the IPv4 address 192.168.100.14 and its associated network prefix 192.168.100.0, or equivalently, its subnet mask 255.255.255.0, which has 24 leading 1-bits.

  • the IPv4 block 192.168.100.0/22 represents the 1024 IPv4 addresses from 192.168.100.0 to 192.168.103.255.

  • the IPv6 block 2001:db8::/48 represents the block of IPv6 addresses from 2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:0 to 2001:db8:0:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.

  • ::1/128 represents the IPv6 loopback address. Its prefix length is 128 which is the number of bits in the address.

<endpoints socket-binding="default" security-realm="default">
  <ip-filter>
    <accept from="192.168.0.0/16"/>
    <accept from="10.0.0.0/8"/>
    <reject from="/0"/>
  </ip-filter>
  <hotrod-connector name="hotrod"/>
  <rest-connector name="rest"/>
</endpoints>

As a result of the preceding configuration, Infinispan servers accept connections only from addresses in the 192.168.0.0/16 and 10.0.0.0/8 CIDR blocks. Infinispan servers reject all other connections.

8.2. Inspecting and Modifying Infinispan Server IP Filter Rules

Server IP filter rules can be manipulated via the CLI.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Inspect and modify the IP filter rules server connector ipfilter command as required.

    1. List all IP filtering rules active on a connector across the cluster:

      [//containers/default]> server connector ipfilter ls endpoint-default
    2. Set IP filtering rules across the cluster.

      This command replaces any existing rules.

      [//containers/default]> server connector ipfilter set endpoint-default --rules=ACCEPT/192.168.0.0/16,REJECT/10.0.0.0/8`
    3. Remove all IP filtering rules on a connector across the cluster.

      [//containers/default]> server connector ipfilter clear endpoint-default

9. Configuring User Authorization

Authorization is a security feature that requires users to have certain permissions before they can access caches or interact with Infinispan resources. You assign roles to users that provide different levels of permissions, from read-only access to full, super user privileges.

9.1. Enabling Authorization in Cache Configuration

Use authorization in your cache configuration to restrict user access. Before they can read or write cache entries, or create and delete caches, users must have a role with a sufficient level of permission.

Procedure
  1. Open your infinispan.xml configuration for editing.

  2. If it is not already declared, add the <authorization /> tag inside the security elements for the cache-container.

    This enables authorization for the Cache Manager and provides a global set of roles and permissions that caches can inherit.

  3. Add the <authorization /> tag to each cache for which Infinispan restricts access based on user roles.

The following configuration example shows how to use implicit authorization configuration with default roles and permissions:

<infinispan>
  <cache-container default-cache="rbac-cache" name="restricted">
    <security>
      <!-- Enable authorization with the default roles and permissions. -->
      <authorization />
    </security>
    <local-cache name="rbac-cache">
      <security>
        <!-- Inherit authorization settings from the cache-container. -->
        <authorization/>
      </security>
    </local-cache>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

9.2. User Roles and Permissions

Infinispan includes a default set of roles that grant users with permissions to access data and interact with Infinispan resources.

ClusterRoleMapper is the default mechanism that Infinispan uses to associate security principals to authorization roles.

ClusterRoleMapper matches principal names to role names. A user named admin gets admin permissions automatically, a user named deployer gets deployer permissions, and so on.

Role Permissions Description

admin

ALL

Superuser with all permissions including control of the Cache Manager lifecycle.

deployer

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR, CREATE

Can create and delete Infinispan resources in addition to application permissions.

application

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR

Has read and write access to Infinispan resources in addition to observer permissions. Can also listen to events and execute server tasks and scripts.

observer

ALL_READ, MONITOR

Has read access to Infinispan resources in addition to monitor permissions.

monitor

MONITOR

Can view statistics via JMX and the metrics endpoint.

9.3. How Security Authorization Works

Infinispan authorization secures your installation by restricting user access.

User applications or clients must belong to a role that is assigned with sufficient permissions before they can perform operations on Cache Managers or caches.

For example, you configure authorization on a specific cache instance so that invoking Cache.get() requires an identity to be assigned a role with read permission while Cache.put() requires a role with write permission.

In this scenario, if a user application or client with the io role attempts to write an entry, Infinispan denies the request and throws a security exception. If a user application or client with the writer role sends a write request, Infinispan validates authorization and issues a token for subsequent operations.

Identities

Identities are security Principals of type java.security.Principal. Subjects, implemented with the javax.security.auth.Subject class, represent a group of security Principals. In other words, a Subject represents a user and all groups to which it belongs.

Identities to roles

Infinispan uses role mappers so that security principals correspond to roles, which you assign one or more permissions.

The following image illustrates how security principals correspond to roles:

Roles/Permissions mapping

9.3.1. Permissions

Authorization roles have different permissions with varying levels of access to Infinispan. Permissions let you restrict user access to both Cache Managers and caches.

Cache Manager permissions
Permission Function Description

CONFIGURATION

defineConfiguration

Defines new cache configurations.

LISTEN

addListener

Registers listeners against a Cache Manager.

LIFECYCLE

stop

Stops the Cache Manager.

CREATE

createCache, removeCache

Create and remove container resources such as caches, counters, schemas, and scripts.

MONITOR

getStats

Allows access to JMX statistics and the metrics endpoint.

ALL

-

Includes all Cache Manager permissions.

Cache permissions
Permission Function Description

READ

get, contains

Retrieves entries from a cache.

WRITE

put, putIfAbsent, replace, remove, evict

Writes, replaces, removes, evicts data in a cache.

EXEC

distexec, streams

Allows code execution against a cache.

LISTEN

addListener

Registers listeners against a cache.

BULK_READ

keySet, values, entrySet, query

Executes bulk retrieve operations.

BULK_WRITE

clear, putAll

Executes bulk write operations.

LIFECYCLE

start, stop

Starts and stops a cache.

ADMIN

getVersion, addInterceptor*, removeInterceptor, getInterceptorChain, getEvictionManager, getComponentRegistry, getDistributionManager, getAuthorizationManager, evict, getRpcManager, getCacheConfiguration, getCacheManager, getInvocationContextContainer, setAvailability, getDataContainer, getStats, getXAResource

Allows access to underlying components and internal structures.

MONITOR

getStats

Allows access to JMX statistics and the metrics endpoint.

ALL

-

Includes all cache permissions.

ALL_READ

-

Combines the READ and BULK_READ permissions.

ALL_WRITE

-

Combines the WRITE and BULK_WRITE permissions.

9.3.2. Role Mappers

Infinispan includes a PrincipalRoleMapper API that maps security Principals in a Subject to authorization roles that you can assign to users.

Cluster role mappers

ClusterRoleMapper uses a persistent replicated cache to dynamically store principal-to-role mappings for the default roles and permissions.

By default uses the Principal name as the role name and implements org.infinispan.security.MutableRoleMapper which exposes methods to change role mappings at runtime.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.ClusterRoleMapper

  • Declarative configuration: <cluster-role-mapper />

Identity role mappers

IdentityRoleMapper uses the Principal name as the role name.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.IdentityRoleMapper

  • Declarative configuration: <identity-role-mapper />

CommonName role mappers

CommonNameRoleMapper uses the Common Name (CN) as the role name if the Principal name is a Distinguished Name (DN).

For example this DN, cn=managers,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com, maps to the managers role.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.CommonRoleMapper

  • Declarative configuration: <common-name-role-mapper />

Custom role mappers

Custom role mappers are implementations of org.infinispan.security.PrincipalRoleMapper.

  • Declarative configuration: <custom-role-mapper class="my.custom.RoleMapper" />

9.4. Access Control List (ACL) Cache

Infinispan caches roles that you grant to users internally for optimal performance. Whenever you grant or deny roles to users, Infinispan flushes the ACL cache to ensure user permissions are applied correctly.

If necessary, you can disable the ACL cache or configure it with the cache-size and cache-timeout attributes.

<security cache-size="1000" cache-timeout="300000">
  <authorization />
</security>

9.5. Customizing Roles and Permissions

You can customize authorization settings in your Infinispan configuration to use role mappers with different combinations of roles and permissions.

Procedure
  1. Open your infinispan.xml configuration for editing.

  2. Configure authorization for the cache-container by declaring a role mapper and a set of roles and permissions.

  3. Configure authorization for caches to restrict access based on user roles.

The following configuration example shows how to configure security authorization with roles and permissions:

<infinispan>
  <cache-container default-cache="restricted" name="custom-authorization">
    <security>
      <authorization>
        <!-- Declare a role mapper that associates a security principal
             to each role. -->
        <identity-role-mapper />
        <!-- Specify user roles and corresponding permissions. -->
        <role name="admin" permissions="ALL" />
        <role name="reader" permissions="READ" />
        <role name="writer" permissions="WRITE" />
        <role name="supervisor" permissions="READ WRITE EXEC"/>
      </authorization>
    </security>
    <local-cache name="implicit-authorization">
      <security>
        <!-- Inherit roles and permissions from the cache-container. -->
        <authorization/>
      </security>
    </local-cache>
    <local-cache name="restricted">
      <security>
        <!-- Explicitly define which roles can access the cache. -->
        <authorization roles="admin supervisor"/>
      </security>
    </local-cache>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

9.6. Disabling Security Authorization

In local development environments you can disable authorization so that users do not need roles and permissions. Disabling security authorization means that any user can access data and interact with Infinispan resources.

Procedure
  1. Open your infinispan.xml configuration for editing.

  2. Remove any authorization elements from the security configuration for the cache-container and each cache configuration.

9.7. Configuring Authorization with Client Certificates

Enabling client certificate authentication means you do not need to specify Infinispan user credentials in client configuration, which means you must associate roles with the Common Name (CN) field in the client certificate(s).

Prerequisites
  • Provide clients with a Java keystore that contains either their public certificates or part of the certificate chain, typically a public CA certificate.

  • Configure Infinispan Server to perform client certificate authentication.

Procedure
  1. Enable the common-name-role-mapper in the security authorization configuration.

  2. Assign the Common Name (CN) from the client certificate a role with the appropriate permissions.

    <cache-container name="certificate-authentication" statistics="true">
       <security>
         <authorization>
           <!-- Declare a role mapper that associates the common name (CN) field
                in client certificate trust stores with authorization roles. -->
           <common-name-role-mapper/>
           <!-- In this example, if a client certificate contains `CN=Client1` then
                clients with matching certificates get ALL permissions. -->
           <role name="Client1" permissions="ALL"/>
         </authorization>
       </security>
    </cache-container>

10. Setting Up Infinispan Clusters

Infinispan requires a transport layer so nodes can automatically join and leave clusters. The transport layer also enables Infinispan nodes to replicate or distribute data across the network and perform operations such as re-balancing and state transfer.

10.1. Default JGroups Stacks

Infinispan provides default JGroups stack files, default-jgroups-*.xml, in the default-configs directory inside the infinispan-core-12.1.7.Final.jar file.

You can find this JAR file in the $ISPN_HOME/lib directory.

File name Stack name Description

default-jgroups-udp.xml

udp

Uses UDP for transport and UDP multicast for discovery. Suitable for larger clusters (over 100 nodes) or if you are using replicated caches or invalidation mode. Minimizes the number of open sockets.

default-jgroups-tcp.xml

tcp

Uses TCP for transport and the MPING protocol for discovery, which uses UDP multicast. Suitable for smaller clusters (under 100 nodes) only if you are using distributed caches because TCP is more efficient than UDP as a point-to-point protocol.

default-jgroups-kubernetes.xml

kubernetes

Uses TCP for transport and DNS_PING for discovery. Suitable for Kubernetes and Red Hat OpenShift nodes where UDP multicast is not always available.

default-jgroups-ec2.xml

ec2

Uses TCP for transport and NATIVE_S3_PING for discovery. Suitable for Amazon EC2 nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

default-jgroups-google.xml

google

Uses TCP for transport and GOOGLE_PING2 for discovery. Suitable for Google Cloud Platform nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

default-jgroups-azure.xml

azure

Uses TCP for transport and AZURE_PING for discovery. Suitable for Microsoft Azure nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

Additional resources

10.2. Cluster Discovery Protocols

Infinispan supports different protocols that allow nodes to automatically find each other on the network and form clusters.

There are two types of discovery mechanisms that Infinispan can use:

  • Generic discovery protocols that work on most networks and do not rely on external services.

  • Discovery protocols that rely on external services to store and retrieve topology information for Infinispan clusters.
    For instance the DNS_PING protocol performs discovery through DNS server records.

Running Infinispan on hosted platforms requires using discovery mechanisms that are adapted to network constraints that individual cloud providers impose.

10.2.1. PING

PING, or UDPPING is a generic JGroups discovery mechanism that uses dynamic multicasting with the UDP protocol.

When joining, nodes send PING requests to an IP multicast address to discover other nodes already in the Infinispan cluster. Each node responds to the PING request with a packet that contains the address of the coordinator node and its own address. C=coordinator’s address and A=own address. If no nodes respond to the PING request, the joining node becomes the coordinator node in a new cluster.

PING configuration example
<config>
  <PING num_discovery_runs="3"/>
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>
Additional resources

10.2.2. TCPPING

TCPPING is a generic JGroups discovery mechanism that uses a list of static addresses for cluster members.

With TCPPING, you manually specify the IP address or hostname of each node in the Infinispan cluster as part of the JGroups stack, rather than letting nodes discover each other dynamically.

TCPPING configuration example
<config>
  <TCP bind_port="7800" />
  <TCPPING timeout="3000"
           initial_hosts="${jgroups.tcpping.initial_hosts:hostname1[port1],hostname2[port2]}"
          port_range="0"
          num_initial_members="3"/>
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>
Additional resources

10.2.3. MPING

MPING uses IP multicast to discover the initial membership of Infinispan clusters.

You can use MPING to replace TCPPING discovery with TCP stacks and use multicasing for discovery instead of static lists of initial hosts. However, you can also use MPING with UDP stacks.

MPING configuration example
<config>
  <MPING mcast_addr="${jgroups.mcast_addr:228.6.7.8}"
         mcast_port="${jgroups.mcast_port:46655}"
         num_discovery_runs="3"
         ip_ttl="${jgroups.udp.ip_ttl:2}"/>
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>
Additional resources

10.2.4. TCPGOSSIP

Gossip routers provide a centralized location on the network from which your Infinispan cluster can retrieve addresses of other nodes.

You inject the address (IP:PORT) of the Gossip router into Infinispan nodes as follows:

  1. Pass the address as a system property to the JVM; for example, -DGossipRouterAddress="10.10.2.4[12001]".

  2. Reference that system property in the JGroups configuration file.

Gossip router configuration example
<config>
  <TCP bind_port="7800" />
  <TCPGOSSIP timeout="3000"
             initial_hosts="${GossipRouterAddress}"
             num_initial_members="3" />
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>
Additional resources

10.2.5. JDBC_PING

JDBC_PING uses shared databases to store information about Infinispan clusters. This protocol supports any database that can use a JDBC connection.

Nodes write their IP addresses to the shared database so joining nodes can find the Infinispan cluster on the network. When nodes leave Infinispan clusters, they delete their IP addresses from the shared database.

JDBC_PING configuration example
<config>
  <JDBC_PING connection_url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/database_name"
             connection_username="user"
             connection_password="password"
             connection_driver="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"/>
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>

Add the appropriate JDBC driver to the classpath so Infinispan can use JDBC_PING.

Additional resources

10.2.6. DNS_PING

JGroups DNS_PING queries DNS servers to discover Infinispan cluster members in Kubernetes environments such as OKD and Red Hat OpenShift.

DNS_PING configuration example
<config>
  <dns.DNS_PING dns_query="myservice.myproject.svc.cluster.local" />
  <!-- JGroups stack configuration. -->
</config>
Additional resources

10.2.7. Cloud Discovery Protocols

Infinispan includes default JGroups stacks that use discovery protocol implementations that are specific to cloud providers.

Discovery protocol Default stack file Artifact Version

NATIVE_S3_PING

default-jgroups-ec2.xml

org.jgroups.aws.s3:native-s3-ping

1.0.0.Final

GOOGLE_PING2

default-jgroups-google.xml

org.jgroups.google:jgroups-google

1.0.0.Final

AZURE_PING

default-jgroups-azure.xml

org.jgroups.azure:jgroups-azure

1.3.0.Final

Providing Dependencies for Cloud Discovery Protocols

To use NATIVE_S3_PING, GOOGLE_PING2, or AZURE_PING cloud discovery protocols, you need to provide dependent libraries to Infinispan.

Procedure
  1. Download the artifact JAR file and all dependencies.

  2. Add the artifact JAR file and all dependencies to the $ISPN_HOME/server/lib directory of your Infinispan Server installation.

    For more details see the Downloading artifacts for JGroups cloud discover protocols for Data Grid Server ({RedHat} knowledgebase article)

You can then configure the cloud discovery protocol as part of a JGroups stack file or with system properties.

10.3. Using the Default JGroups Stacks

Infinispan uses JGroups protocol stacks so nodes can send each other messages on dedicated cluster channels.

Infinispan provides preconfigured JGroups stacks for UDP and TCP protocols. You can use these default stacks as a starting point for building custom cluster transport configuration that is optimized for your network requirements.

Procedure

Do one of the following to use one of the default JGroups stacks:

  • Use the stack attribute in your infinispan.xml file.

    <infinispan>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Use the default UDP stack for cluster transport. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                   stack="udp"
                   node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>
  • Use the cluster-stack argument to set the JGroups stack file when Infinispan Server starts:

    $ bin/server.sh --cluster-stack=udp
Verification

Infinispan logs the following message to indicate which stack it uses:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack udp

10.4. Customizing JGroups Stacks

Adjust and tune properties to create a cluster transport configuration that works for your network requirements.

Infinispan provides attributes that let you extend the default JGroups stacks for easier configuration. You can inherit properties from the default stacks while combining, removing, and replacing other properties.

Procedure
  1. Create a new JGroups stack declaration in your infinispan.xml file.

  2. Add the extends attribute and specify a JGroups stack to inherit properties from.

  3. Use the stack.combine attribute to modify properties for protocols configured in the inherited stack.

  4. Use the stack.position attribute to define the location for your custom stack.

  5. Specify the stack name as the value for the stack attribute in the transport configuration.

    For example, you might evaluate using a Gossip router and symmetric encryption with the default TCP stack as follows:

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Creates a custom JGroups stack named "my-stack". -->
        <!-- Inherits properties from the default TCP stack. -->
        <stack name="my-stack" extends="tcp">
          <!-- Uses TCPGOSSIP as the discovery mechanism instead of MPING -->
          <TCPGOSSIP initial_hosts="${jgroups.tunnel.gossip_router_hosts:localhost[12001]}"
                 stack.combine="REPLACE"
                 stack.position="MPING" />
          <!-- Removes the FD_SOCK protocol from the stack. -->
          <FD_SOCK stack.combine="REMOVE"/>
          <!-- Modifies the timeout value for the VERIFY_SUSPECT protocol. -->
          <VERIFY_SUSPECT timeout="2000"/>
          <!-- Adds SYM_ENCRYPT to the stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
          <SYM_ENCRYPT sym_algorithm="AES"
                       keystore_name="mykeystore.p12"
                       keystore_type="PKCS12"
                       store_password="changeit"
                       key_password="changeit"
                       alias="myKey"
                       stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                       stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT" />
        </stack>
        <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
          <!-- Uses "my-stack" for cluster transport. -->
          <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                     stack="my-stack"
                     node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
       </cache-container>
      </jgroups>
    </infinispan>
  6. Check Infinispan logs to ensure it uses the stack.

    [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack my-stack

10.4.1. Inheritance Attributes

When you extend a JGroups stack, inheritance attributes let you adjust protocols and properties in the stack you are extending.

  • stack.position specifies protocols to modify.

  • stack.combine uses the following values to extend JGroups stacks:

    Value Description

    COMBINE

    Overrides protocol properties.

    REPLACE

    Replaces protocols.

    INSERT_AFTER

    Adds a protocol into the stack after another protocol. Does not affect the protocol that you specify as the insertion point.

    Protocols in JGroups stacks affect each other based on their location in the stack. For example, you should put a protocol such as NAKACK2 after the SYM_ENCRYPT or ASYM_ENCRYPT protocol so that NAKACK2 is secured.

    INSERT_BEFORE

    Inserts a protocols into the stack before another protocol. Affects the protocol that you specify as the insertion point.

    REMOVE

    Removes protocols from the stack.

10.5. Using JGroups System Properties

Pass system properties to Infinispan at startup to tune cluster transport.

Procedure
  • Use -D<property-name>=<property-value> arguments to set JGroups system properties as required.

For example, set a custom bind port and IP address as follows:

$ bin/server.sh -Djgroups.bind.port=1234 -Djgroups.bind.address=192.0.2.0

10.5.1. Cluster Transport Properties

Use the following properties to customize JGroups cluster transport.

System Property Description Default Value Required/Optional

jgroups.bind.address

Bind address for cluster transport.

SITE_LOCAL

Optional

jgroups.bind.port

Bind port for the socket.

7800

Optional

jgroups.mcast_addr

IP address for multicast, both discovery and inter-cluster communication. The IP address must be a valid "class D" address that is suitable for IP multicast.

228.6.7.8

Optional

jgroups.mcast_port

Port for the multicast socket.

46655

Optional

jgroups.ip_ttl

Time-to-live (TTL) for IP multicast packets. The value defines the number of network hops a packet can make before it is dropped.

2

Optional

jgroups.thread_pool.min_threads

Minimum number of threads for the thread pool.

0

Optional

jgroups.thread_pool.max_threads

Maximum number of threads for the thread pool.

200

Optional

jgroups.join_timeout

Maximum number of milliseconds to wait for join requests to succeed.

2000

Optional

jgroups.thread_dumps_threshold

Number of times a thread pool needs to be full before a thread dump is logged.

10000

Optional

10.5.2. System Properties for Cloud Discovery Protocols

Use the following properties to configure JGroups discovery protocols for hosted platforms.

Amazon EC2

System properties for configuring NATIVE_S3_PING.

System Property Description Default Value Required/Optional

jgroups.s3.region_name

Name of the Amazon S3 region.

No default value.

Optional

jgroups.s3.bucket_name

Name of the Amazon S3 bucket. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Optional

Google Cloud Platform

System properties for configuring GOOGLE_PING2.

System Property Description Default Value Required/Optional

jgroups.google.bucket_name

Name of the Google Compute Engine bucket. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Required

Azure

System properties for AZURE_PING.

System Property Description Default Value Required/Optional

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.storage_account_name

Name of the Azure storage account. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Required

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.storage_access_key

Name of the Azure storage access key.

No default value.

Required

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.container

Valid DNS name of the container that stores ping information.

No default value.

Required

Kubernetes

System properties for DNS_PING.

System Property Description Default Value Required/Optional

jgroups.dns.query

Sets the DNS record that returns cluster members.

No default value.

Required

10.6. Using Inline JGroups Stacks

You can insert complete JGroups stack definitions into infinispan.xml files.

Procedure
  • Embed a custom JGroups stack declaration in your infinispan.xml file.

    <infinispan>
      <!-- Contains one or more JGroups stack definitions. -->
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Defines a custom JGroups stack named "prod". -->
        <stack name="prod">
          <TCP bind_port="7800" port_range="30" recv_buf_size="20000000" send_buf_size="640000"/>
          <MPING break_on_coord_rsp="true"
                 mcast_addr="${jgroups.mping.mcast_addr:228.2.4.6}"
                 mcast_port="${jgroups.mping.mcast_port:43366}"
                 num_discovery_runs="3"
                 ip_ttl="${jgroups.udp.ip_ttl:2}"/>
          <MERGE3 />
          <FD_SOCK />
          <FD_ALL timeout="3000" interval="1000" timeout_check_interval="1000" />
          <VERIFY_SUSPECT timeout="1000" />
          <pbcast.NAKACK2 use_mcast_xmit="false" xmit_interval="100" xmit_table_num_rows="50"
                          xmit_table_msgs_per_row="1024" xmit_table_max_compaction_time="30000" />
          <UNICAST3 xmit_interval="100" xmit_table_num_rows="50" xmit_table_msgs_per_row="1024"
                    xmit_table_max_compaction_time="30000" />
          <pbcast.STABLE stability_delay="200" desired_avg_gossip="2000" max_bytes="1M" />
          <pbcast.GMS print_local_addr="false" join_timeout="${jgroups.join_timeout:2000}" />
          <UFC max_credits="4m" min_threshold="0.40" />
          <MFC max_credits="4m" min_threshold="0.40" />
          <FRAG3 />
        </stack>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Uses "prod" for cluster transport. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
               stack="prod"
               node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

10.7. Using External JGroups Stacks

Reference external files that define custom JGroups stacks in infinispan.xml files.

Procedure
  1. Add custom JGroups stack files to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

    Alternatively you can specify an absolute path when you declare the external stack file.

  2. Reference the external stack file with the stack-file element.

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
         <!-- Creates a "prod-tcp" stack that references an external file. -->
         <stack-file name="prod-tcp" path="prod-jgroups-tcp.xml"/>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Use the "prod-tcp" stack for cluster transport. -->
        <transport stack="prod-tcp" />
        <replicated-cache name="replicatedCache"/>
      </cache-container>
      <!-- Cache configuration goes here. -->
    </infinispan>

10.8. Encrypting Cluster Transport

Secure cluster transport so that nodes communicate with encrypted messages. You can also configure Infinispan clusters to perform certificate authentication so that only nodes with valid identities can join.

10.8.1. Infinispan Cluster Security

To secure cluster traffic, you configure Infinispan nodes to encrypt JGroups message payloads with secret keys.

Infinispan nodes can obtain secret keys from either:

  • The coordinator node (asymmetric encryption).

  • A shared keystore (symmetric encryption).

Retrieving secret keys from coordinator nodes

You configure asymmetric encryption by adding the ASYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Infinispan configuration. This allows Infinispan clusters to generate and distribute secret keys.

When using asymmetric encryption, you should also provide keystores so that nodes can perform certificate authentication and securely exchange secret keys. This protects your cluster from man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks.

Asymmetric encryption secures cluster traffic as follows:

  1. The first node in the Infinispan cluster, the coordinator node, generates a secret key.

  2. A joining node performs certificate authentication with the coordinator to mutually verify identity.

  3. The joining node requests the secret key from the coordinator node. That request includes the public key for the joining node.

  4. The coordinator node encrypts the secret key with the public key and returns it to the joining node.

  5. The joining node decrypts and installs the secret key.

  6. The node joins the cluster, encrypting and decrypting messages with the secret key.

Retrieving secret keys from shared keystores

You configure symmetric encryption by adding the SYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Infinispan configuration. This allows Infinispan clusters to obtain secret keys from keystores that you provide.

  1. Nodes install the secret key from a keystore on the Infinispan classpath at startup.

  2. Node join clusters, encrypting and decrypting messages with the secret key.

Comparison of asymmetric and symmetric encryption

ASYM_ENCRYPT with certificate authentication provides an additional layer of encryption in comparison with SYM_ENCRYPT. You provide keystores that encrypt the requests to coordinator nodes for the secret key. Infinispan automatically generates that secret key and handles cluster traffic, while letting you specify when to generate secret keys. For example, you can configure clusters to generate new secret keys when nodes leave. This ensures that nodes cannot bypass certificate authentication and join with old keys.

SYM_ENCRYPT, on the other hand, is faster than ASYM_ENCRYPT because nodes do not need to exchange keys with the cluster coordinator. A potential drawback to SYM_ENCRYPT is that there is no configuration to automatically generate new secret keys when cluster membership changes. Users are responsible for generating and distributing the secret keys that nodes use to encrypt cluster traffic.

10.8.2. Configuring Cluster Transport with Asymmetric Encryption

Configure Infinispan clusters to generate and distribute secret keys that encrypt JGroups messages.

Procedure
  1. Create a keystore with certificate chains that enables Infinispan to verify node identity.

  2. Place the keystore on the classpath for each node in the cluster.

    For Infinispan Server, you put the keystore in the $ISPN_HOME directory.

  3. Add the SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE and ASYM_ENCRYPT protocols to a JGroups stack in your Infinispan configuration, as in the following example:

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Creates a secure JGroups stack named "encrypt-tcp" that extends the default TCP stack. -->
        <stack name="encrypt-tcp" extends="tcp">
          <!-- Adds a keystore that nodes use to perform certificate authentication. -->
          <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE into the default TCP stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
          <SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE keystore_name="mykeystore.jks"
                            keystore_password="changeit"
                            stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                            stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT"/>
          <!-- Configures ASYM_ENCRYPT -->
          <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert ASYM_ENCRYPT into the default TCP stack before pbcast.NAKACK2. -->
          <!-- The use_external_key_exchange = "true" attribute configures nodes to use the `SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE` protocol for certificate authentication. -->
          <ASYM_ENCRYPT asym_keylength="2048"
                        asym_algorithm="RSA"
                        change_key_on_coord_leave = "false"
                        change_key_on_leave = "false"
                        use_external_key_exchange = "true"
                        stack.combine="INSERT_BEFORE"
                        stack.position="pbcast.NAKACK2"/>
        </stack>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
        <!-- Configures the cluster to use the JGroups stack. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                   stack="encrypt-tcp"
                   node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>
Verification

When you start your Infinispan cluster, the following log message indicates that the cluster is using the secure JGroups stack:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack <encrypted_stack_name>

Infinispan nodes can join the cluster only if they use ASYM_ENCRYPT and can obtain the secret key from the coordinator node. Otherwise the following message is written to Infinispan logs:

[org.jgroups.protocols.ASYM_ENCRYPT] <hostname>: received message without encrypt header from <hostname>; dropping it
Reference

The example ASYM_ENCRYPT configuration in this procedure shows commonly used parameters. Refer to JGroups documentation for the full set of available parameters.

10.8.3. Configuring Cluster Transport with Symmetric Encryption

Configure Infinispan clusters to encrypt JGroups messages with secret keys from keystores that you provide.

Procedure
  1. Create a keystore that contains a secret key.

  2. Place the keystore on the classpath for each node in the cluster.

    For Infinispan Server, you put the keystore in the $ISPN_HOME directory.

  3. Add the SYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Infinispan configuration.

<infinispan>
  <jgroups>
    <!-- Creates a secure JGroups stack named "encrypt-tcp" that extends the default TCP stack. -->
    <stack name="encrypt-tcp" extends="tcp">
      <!-- Adds a keystore from which nodes obtain secret keys. -->
      <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert SYM_ENCRYPT into the default TCP stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
      <SYM_ENCRYPT keystore_name="myKeystore.p12"
                   keystore_type="PKCS12"
                   store_password="changeit"
                   key_password="changeit"
                   alias="myKey"
                   stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                   stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT"/>
    </stack>
  </jgroups>
  <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
    <!-- Configures the cluster to use the JGroups stack. -->
    <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
               stack="encrypt-tcp"
               node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>
Verification

When you start your Infinispan cluster, the following log message indicates that the cluster is using the secure JGroups stack:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack <encrypted_stack_name>

Infinispan nodes can join the cluster only if they use SYM_ENCRYPT and can obtain the secret key from the shared keystore. Otherwise the following message is written to Infinispan logs:

[org.jgroups.protocols.SYM_ENCRYPT] <hostname>: received message without encrypt header from <hostname>; dropping it
Reference

The example SYM_ENCRYPT configuration in this procedure shows commonly used parameters. Refer to JGroups documentation for the full set of available parameters.

10.9. TCP and UDP Ports for Cluster Traffic

Infinispan uses the following ports for cluster transport messages:

Default Port Protocol Description

7800

TCP/UDP

JGroups cluster bind port

46655

UDP

JGroups multicast

Cross-Site Replication

Infinispan uses the following ports for the JGroups RELAY2 protocol:

7900

For Infinispan clusters running on Kubernetes.

7800

If using UDP for traffic between nodes and TCP for traffic between clusters.

7801

If using TCP for traffic between nodes and TCP for traffic between clusters.

11. Remotely Creating Infinispan Caches

Add caches to Infinispan Server so you can store data.

11.1. Cache Configuration with Infinispan Server

Caches configure the data container on Infinispan Server.

You create caches at run-time by adding definitions based on org.infinispan templates or Infinispan configuration through the console, the Command Line Interface (CLI), the Hot Rod endpoint, or the REST endpoint.

When you create caches at run-time, Infinispan Server replicates your cache definitions across the cluster.

Configuration that you declare directly in infinispan.xml is not automatically synchronized across Infinispan clusters. In this case you should use configuration management tooling, such as Ansible or Chef, to ensure that configuration is propagated to all nodes in your cluster.

11.2. Default Cache Manager

{ProductName} Server provides a default Cache Manager configuration. When you start Infinispan Server, it instantiates the Cache Manager so you can remotely create caches at run-time.

Default Cache Manager
<!-- Creates a Cache Manager named "default" and exports metrics. -->
<cache-container name="default"
                 statistics="true">
  <!-- Adds cluster transport that uses the default JGroups TCP stack. -->
  <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name:cluster}"
             stack="${infinispan.cluster.stack:tcp}"
             node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
</cache-container>
Examining the Cache Manager

After you start Infinispan Server and add user credentials, you can access the default Cache Manager through the Command Line Interface (CLI) or REST endpoint as follows:

  • CLI: Use the describe command in the default container.

    [//containers/default]> describe
  • REST: Navigate to <server_hostname>:11222/rest/v2/cache-managers/default/ in any browser.

11.3. Creating Caches with the Infinispan Console

Dynamically add caches from templates or configuration files through the Infinispan console.

Prerequisites

Create a user and start at least one Infinispan server instance.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to <server_hostname>:11222/console/ in any browser.

  2. Log in to the console.

  3. Open the Data Container view.

  4. Select Create Cache and then add a cache from a template or with Infinispan configuration in XML or JSON format.

  5. Return to the Data Container view and verify your Infinispan cache.

11.4. Creating Caches with the Infinispan Command Line Interface (CLI)

Use the Infinispan CLI to add caches from templates or configuration files in XML or JSON format.

Prerequisites

Create a user and start at least one Infinispan server instance.

Procedure
  1. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  2. Add cache definitions with the create cache command.

    • Add a cache definition from an XML or JSON file with the --file option.

      [//containers/default]> create cache --file=configuration.xml mycache
    • Add a cache definition from a template with the --template option.

      [//containers/default]> create cache --template=org.infinispan.DIST_SYNC mycache

      Press the tab key after the --template= argument to list available cache templates.

  3. Verify the cache exists with the ls command.

    [//containers/default]> ls caches
    mycache
  4. Retrieve the cache configuration with the describe command.

    [//containers/default]> describe caches/mycache

11.5. Creating Remote Caches with Hot Rod Clients

When Hot Rod Java clients attempt to access caches that do not exist, they return null for remoteCacheManager.getCache("myCache") invocations. To avoid this scenario, you can configure Hot Rod clients to create caches on first access using cache configuration.

Procedure
  • Use the remoteCache() method in the ConfigurationBuilder or use the configuration and configuration_uri properties in hotrod-client.properties.

ConfigurationBuilder
File file = new File("path/to/infinispan.xml")
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.remoteCache("another-cache")
       .configuration("<distributed-cache name=\"another-cache\"/>");
builder.remoteCache("my.other.cache")
       .configurationURI(file.toURI());
hotrod-client.properties
infinispan.client.hotrod.cache.another-cache.configuration=<distributed-cache name=\"another-cache\"/>
infinispan.client.hotrod.cache.[my.other.cache].configuration_uri=file:///path/to/infinispan.xml

When using hotrod-client.properties with cache names that contain the . character, you must enclose the cache name in square brackets as in the preceding example.

You can also create remote caches through the RemoteCacheManager API in other ways, such as the following example that adds a cache configuration with the XMLStringConfiguration() method and then calls the getOrCreateCache() method.

However, Infinispan does not recommend this approach because it can more difficult to ensure XML validity and is generally a more cumbersome way to create caches. If you are creating complex cache configurations, you should save them to separate files in your project and reference them in your Hot Rod client configuration.

String cacheName = "CacheWithXMLConfiguration";
String xml = String.format("<distributed-cache name=\"%s\" mode=\"SYNC\">" +
                              "<encoding media-type=\"application/x-protostream\"/>" +
                              "<locking isolation=\"READ_COMMITTED\"/>" +
                              "<transaction mode=\"NON_XA\"/>" +
                              "<expiration lifespan=\"60000\" interval=\"20000\"/>" +
                           "</distributed-cache>" , cacheName);
remoteCacheManager.administration().getOrCreateCache(cacheName, new XMLStringConfiguration(xml));
Hot Rod code examples

Try some Infinispan code tutorials that show you how to create remote caches in different ways with the Hot Rod Java client.

11.6. Creating Infinispan Caches with HTTP Clients

Add cache definitions to Infinispan servers through the REST endpoint with any suitable HTTP client.

Prerequisites

Create a user and start at least one Infinispan server instance.

Procedure
  • Create caches with POST requests to /rest/v2/caches/$cacheName.

Use XML or JSON configuration by including it in the request payload.

POST /rest/v2/caches/mycache

Use the ?template= parameter to create caches from org.infinispan templates.

POST /rest/v2/caches/mycache?template=org.infinispan.DIST_SYNC

11.7. Cache Configuration

You can provide cache configuration in XML or JSON format.

XML
<distributed-cache name="myCache" mode="SYNC">
  <encoding media-type="application/x-protostream"/>
  <memory max-count="1000000" when-full="REMOVE"/>
</distributed-cache>
JSON
{
  "distributed-cache": {
    "name": "myCache",
    "mode": "SYNC",
    "encoding": {
      "media-type": "application/x-protostream"
      },
    "memory": {
      "max-count": 1000000,
      "when-full": "REMOVE"
    }
  }
}

JSON format

Cache configuration in JSON format must follow the structure of an XML configuration. * XML elements become JSON objects. * XML attributes become JSON fields.

12. Configuring Infinispan Server Datasources

Create managed datasources to optimize connection pooling and performance for database connections.

You can specify database connection properties as part of a JDBC cache store configuration. However, you must do this for each cache definition, which duplicates configuration and wastes resources by creating multiple distinct connection pools.

By using shared, managed datasources, you centralize connection configuration and pooling for more efficient usage.

12.1. Datasource Configuration for JDBC Cache Stores

Infinispan server configuration for datasources is composed of two sections:

  • A connection factory that defines how to connect to the database.

  • A connection pool that defines how to pool and reuse connections.

<data-sources>
   <!-- Defines a unique name for the datasource, JNDI name, and enables statistics. -->
   <data-source name="ds" jndi-name="jdbc/datasource" statistics="true">
      <!-- Specifies the JDBC driver that creates connections. -->
      <connection-factory driver="org.database.Driver"
                          username="db_user"
                          password="secret"
                          url="jdbc:db://database-host:10000/dbname"
                          new-connection-sql="SELECT 1"
                          transaction-isolation="READ_COMMITTED">
         <!-- Sets optional JDBC driver-specific connection properties. -->
         <connection-property name="name">value</connection-property>
      </connection-factory>
      <!-- Defines connection pool properties. -->
      <connection-pool initial-size="1"
                       max-size="10"
                       min-size="3"
                       background-validation="1000"
                       idle-removal="1"
                       blocking-timeout="1000"
                       leak-detection="10000"/>
   </data-source>
</data-sources>

Connection pools can be tuned using the following parameters:

  • initial-size: Initial number of connections the pool should hold.

  • max-size: Maximum number of connections in the pool.

  • min-size: Minimum number of connections the pool should hold.

  • blocking-timeout: Maximum time in milliseconds to block while waiting for a connection before throwing an exception. This will never throw an exception if creating a new connection takes an inordinately long period of time. Default is 0 meaning that a call will wait indefinitely.

  • background-validation: Time in milliseconds between background validation runs. A duration of 0 means that this feature is disabled.

  • validate-on-acquisition: Connections idle for longer than this time, specified in milliseconds, are validated before being acquired (foreground validation). A duration of 0 means that this feature is disabled.

  • idle-removal: Time in minutes a connection has to be idle before it can be removed.

  • leak-detection: Time in milliseconds a connection has to be held before a leak warning.

12.2. Using Datasources in JDBC Cache Stores

Use a shared, managed datasource in your JDBC cache store configuration instead of specifying individual connection properties for each cache definition.

Prerequisites

Create a managed datasource for JDBC cache stores in your Infinispan server configuration.

Procedure
  • Reference the JNDI name of the datasource in the JDBC cache store configuration of your cache configuration, as in the following example:

<distributed-cache-configuration name="persistent-cache" xmlns:jdbc="urn:infinispan:config:store:jdbc:12.1">
    <persistence>
        <jdbc:string-keyed-jdbc-store>
            <!-- Specifies the JNDI name that you provided for the datasource connection in the server configuration. -->
            <jdbc:data-source jndi-url="jdbc/postgres"/>
            <jdbc:string-keyed-table drop-on-exit="true"
                          create-on-start="true"
                          prefix="TBL">
                <jdbc:id-column name="ID" type="VARCHAR(255)"/>
                <jdbc:data-column name="DATA" type="BYTEA"/>
                <jdbc:timestamp-column name="TS" type="BIGINT"/>
                <jdbc:segment-column name="S" type="INT"/>
            </jdbc:string-keyed-table>
        </jdbc:string-keyed-jdbc-store>
    </persistence>
</distributed-cache-configuration>

12.3. Testing Data Sources

Verify that connections to data sources are functioning correctly with the CLI.

Procedure
  1. Start the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh
    [disconnected]>
  2. List all data sources:

    [//containers/default]> server datasource ls
  3. Test a data source connection.

    [//containers/default]> server datasource test my-datasource

13. Remotely Executing Server-Side Tasks

Define and add tasks to Infinispan servers that you can invoke from the Infinispan command line interface, REST API, or from Hot Rod clients.

You can implement tasks as custom Java classes or define scripts in languages such as JavaScript.

13.1. Creating Server Tasks

Create custom task implementations and add them to Infinispan servers.

13.1.1. Server Tasks

Infinispan server tasks are classes that extend the org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask interface and generally include the following method calls:

setTaskContext()

Allows access to execution context information including task parameters, cache references on which tasks are executed, and so on. In most cases, implementations store this information locally and use it when tasks are actually executed.

getName()

Returns unique names for tasks. Clients invoke tasks with these names.

getExecutionMode()

Returns the execution mode for tasks.

  • TaskExecutionMode.ONE_NODE only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.

  • TaskExecutionMode.ALL_NODES Infinispan uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes. For example, server tasks that invoke stream processing need to be executed on a single node because stream processing is distributed to all nodes.

call()

Computes a result. This method is defined in the java.util.concurrent.Callable interface and is invoked with server tasks.

Server task implementations must adhere to service loader pattern requirements. For example, implementations must have a zero-argument constructors.

The following HelloTask class implementation provides an example task that has one parameter:

package example;

import org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask;
import org.infinispan.tasks.TaskContext;

public class HelloTask implements ServerTask<String> {

   private TaskContext ctx;

   @Override
   public void setTaskContext(TaskContext ctx) {
      this.ctx = ctx;
   }

   @Override
   public String call() throws Exception {
      String name = (String) ctx.getParameters().get().get("name");
      return "Hello " + name;
   }

   @Override
   public String getName() {
      return "hello-task";
   }

}

13.1.2. Deploying Server Tasks to Infinispan Servers

Add your custom server task classes to Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites

Stop any running Infinispan servers. Infinispan does not support runtime deployment of custom classes.

Procedure
  1. Add a META-INF/services/org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask file that contains the fully qualified names of server tasks, for example:

    example.HelloTask
  2. Package your server task implementation in a JAR file.

  3. Copy the JAR file to the $ISPN_HOME/server/lib directory of your Infinispan server.

  4. Add your classes to the deserialization allow list in your Infinispan configuration. Alternatively set the allow list using system properties.

13.2. Creating Server Scripts

Create custom scripts and add them to Infinispan servers.

13.2.1. Server Scripts

Infinispan server scripting is based on the javax.script API and is compatible with any JVM-based ScriptEngine implementation.

Hello World Script Example

The following is a simple example that runs on a single Infinispan server, has one parameter, and uses JavaScript:

// mode=local,language=javascript,parameters=[greetee]
"Hello " + greetee

When you run the preceding script, you pass a value for the greetee parameter and Infinispan returns "Hello ${value}".

Script Metadata

Metadata provides additional information about scripts that Infinispan servers use when running scripts.

Script metadata are property=value pairs that you add to comments in the first lines of scripts, such as the following example:

// name=test, language=javascript
// mode=local, parameters=[a,b,c]
  • Use comment styles that match the scripting language (//, ;;, #).

  • Separate property=value pairs with commas.

  • Separate values with single (') or double (") quote characters.

Table 1. Metadata Properties
Property Description

mode

Defines the execution mode and has the following values:

local only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.

distributed Infinispan uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes.

language

Specifies the ScriptEngine that executes the script.

extension

Specifies filename extensions as an alternative method to set the ScriptEngine.

role

Specifies roles that users must have to execute scripts.

parameters

Specifies an array of valid parameter names for this script. Invocations which specify parameters not included in this list cause exceptions.

datatype

Optionally sets the MediaType (MIME type) for storing data as well as parameter and return values. This property is useful for remote clients that support particular data formats only.

Currently you can set only text/plain; charset=utf-8 to use the String UTF-8 format for data.

Script Bindings

Infinispan exposes internal objects as bindings for script execution.

Binding Description

cache

Specifies the cache against which the script is run.

marshaller

Specifies the marshaller to use for serializing data to the cache.

cacheManager

Specifies the cacheManager for the cache.

scriptingManager

Specifies the instance of the script manager that runs the script. You can use this binding to run other scripts from a script.

Script Parameters

Infinispan lets you pass named parameters as bindings for running scripts.

Parameters are name,value pairs, where name is a string and value is any value that the marshaller can interpret.

The following example script has two parameters, multiplicand and multiplier. The script takes the value of multiplicand and multiplies it with the value of multiplier.

// mode=local,language=javascript
multiplicand * multiplier

When you run the preceding script, Infinispan responds with the result of the expression evaluation.

13.2.2. Adding Scripts to Infinispan Servers

Use the command line interface to add scripts to Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites

Infinispan Server stores scripts in the ___script_cache cache. If you enable cache authorization, users must have CREATE permissions to add to ___script_cache.

Assign users the deployer role at minimum if you use default authorization settings.

Procedure
  1. Define scripts as required.

    For example, create a file named multiplication.js that runs on a single Infinispan server, has two parameters, and uses JavaScript to multiply a given value:

    // mode=local,language=javascript
    multiplicand * multiplier
  2. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  3. Use the task command to upload scripts, as in the following example:

    [//containers/default]> task upload --file=multiplication.js multiplication
  4. Verify that your scripts are available.

    [//containers/default]> ls tasks
    multiplication

13.2.3. Programmatically Creating Scripts

Add scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface as in the following example:

RemoteCache<String, String> scriptCache = cacheManager.getCache("___script_cache");
scriptCache.put("multiplication.js",
  "// mode=local,language=javascript\n" +
  "multiplicand * multiplier\n");

13.3. Running Server-Side Tasks and Scripts

Execute tasks and custom scripts on Infinispan servers.

13.3.1. Running Tasks and Scripts

Use the command line interface to run tasks and scripts on Infinispan clusters.

Procedure
  1. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  2. Use the task command to run tasks and scripts, as in the following examples:

    • Execute a script named multipler.js and specify two parameters:

      [//containers/default]> task exec multipler.js -Pmultiplicand=10 -Pmultiplier=20
      200.0
    • Execute a task named @@cache@names to retrieve a list of all available caches:

      //containers/default]> task exec @@cache@names
      ["___protobuf_metadata","mycache","___script_cache"]

13.3.2. Programmatically Running Scripts

Call the execute() method to run scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface, as in the following example:

RemoteCache<String, Integer> cache = cacheManager.getCache();
// Create parameters for script execution.
Map<String, Object> params = new HashMap<>();
params.put("multiplicand", 10);
params.put("multiplier", 20);
// Run the script with the parameters.
Object result = cache.execute("multiplication.js", params);

13.3.3. Programmatically Running Tasks

Call the execute() method to run tasks with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface, as in the following example:

// Add configuration for a locally running server.
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.addServer().host("127.0.0.1").port(11222);

// Connect to the server.
RemoteCacheManager cacheManager = new RemoteCacheManager(builder.build());

// Retrieve the remote cache.
RemoteCache<String, String> cache = cacheManager.getCache();

// Create task parameters.
Map<String, String> parameters = new HashMap<>();
parameters.put("name", "developer");

// Run the server task.
String greet = cache.execute("hello-task", parameters);
System.out.println(greet);

14. Enabling and Customizing Logging

Infinispan uses Apache Log4j 2 to provide configurable logging mechanisms that capture details about the environment and record cache operations for troubleshooting purposes and root cause analysis.

14.1. Server Logs

Infinispan writes server logs to the following files in the $ISPN_HOME/server/log directory:

server.log

Messages in human readable format, including boot logs that relate to the server startup.
Infinispan creates this file when you start the server.

server.log.json

Messages in JSON format that let you parse and analyze Infinispan logs.
Infinispan creates this file when you enable the JSON-FILE appender.

14.1.1. Configuring Server Logs

Infinispan uses Apache Log4j technology to write server log messages. You can configure server logs in the log4j2.xml file.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Change server logging as appropriate.

  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.

Additional resources

14.1.2. Log Levels

Log levels indicate the nature and severity of messages.

Log level Description

TRACE

Fine-grained debug messages, capturing the flow of individual requests through the application.

DEBUG

Messages for general debugging, not related to an individual request.

INFO

Messages about the overall progress of applications, including lifecycle events.

WARN

Events that can lead to error or degrade performance.

ERROR

Error conditions that might prevent operations or activities from being successful but do not prevent applications from running.

FATAL

Events that could cause critical service failure and application shutdown.

In addition to the levels of individual messages presented above, the configuration allows two more values: ALL to include all messages, and OFF to exclude all messages.

14.1.3. Infinispan Log Categories

Infinispan provides categories for INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL level messages that organize logs by functional area.

org.infinispan.CLUSTER

Messages specific to Infinispan clustering that include state transfer operations, rebalancing events, partitioning, and so on.

org.infinispan.CONFIG

Messages specific to Infinispan configuration.

org.infinispan.CONTAINER

Messages specific to the data container that include expiration and eviction operations, cache listener notifications, transactions, and so on.

org.infinispan.PERSISTENCE

Messages specific to cache loaders and stores.

org.infinispan.SECURITY

Messages specific to Infinispan security.

org.infinispan.SERVER

Messages specific to Infinispan servers.

org.infinispan.XSITE

Messages specific to cross-site replication operations.

14.1.4. Log Appenders

Log appenders define how Infinispan records log messages.

CONSOLE

Write log messages to the host standard out (stdout) or standard error (stderr) stream.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.ConsoleAppender class by default.

FILE

Write log messages to a file.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.

JSON-FILE

Write log messages to a file in JSON format.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.

14.1.5. Log Patterns

The CONSOLE and FILE appenders use a PatternLayout to format the log messages according to a pattern.

An example is the default pattern in the FILE appender:
%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} %-5p (%t) [%c{1}] %m%throwable%n

  • %d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} adds the current time and date.

  • %-5p specifies the log level, aligned to the right.

  • %t adds the name of the current thread.

  • %c{1} adds the short name of the logging category.

  • %m adds the log message.

  • %throwable adds the exception stack trace.

  • %n adds a new line.

Patterns are fully described in the PatternLayout documentation .

14.1.6. Enabling and Configuring the JSON Log Handler

Infinispan provides a JSON log handler to write messages in JSON format.

Prerequisites
  • Stop Infinispan Server if it is running.
    You cannot dynamically enable log handlers.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Uncomment the JSON-FILE appender and comment out the FILE appender:

    <!--<AppenderRef ref="FILE"/>-->
    <AppenderRef ref="JSON-FILE"/>
  3. Optionally configure the JSON appender and JSON layout as required.

  4. Save and close log4j2.xml.

When you start Infinispan, it writes each log message as a JSON map in the following file:
$ISPN_HOME/server/log/server.log.json

Additional resources

14.2. Access Logs

Access logs record all inbound client requests for Hot Rod and REST endpoints to files in the $ISPN_HOME/server/log directory.

org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG

Logging category that writes Hot Rod access messages to a hotrod-access.log file.

org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG

Logging category that writes REST access messages to a rest-access.log file.

14.2.1. Enabling Access Logs

To record Hot Rod and REST endpoint access messages, you need to enable the logging categories in log4j2.xml.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Change the level for the org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG and org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG logging categories to TRACE.

  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.

<Logger name="org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG" additivity="false" level="TRACE">
   <AppenderRef ref="HR-ACCESS-FILE"/>
</Logger>

14.2.2. Access Log Properties

The default format for access logs is as follows:

%X{address} %X{user} [%d{dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z}] &quot;%X{method} %m
%X{protocol}&quot; %X{status} %X{requestSize} %X{responseSize} %X{duration}%n

The preceding format creates log entries such as the following:

127.0.0.1 - [DD/MM/YYYY:HH:MM:SS +0000] "PUT /rest/v2/caches/default/key HTTP/1.1" 404 5 77 10

Logging properties use the %X{name} notation and let you modify the format of access logs. The following are the default logging properties:

Property Description

address

Either the X-Forwarded-For header or the client IP address.

user

Principal name, if using authentication.

method

Method used. PUT, GET, and so on.

protocol

Protocol used. HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, HOTROD/2.9, and so on.

status

An HTTP status code for the REST endpoint. OK or an exception for the Hot Rod endpoint.

requestSize

Size, in bytes, of the request.

responseSize

Size, in bytes, of the response.

duration

Number of milliseconds that the server took to handle the request.

Use the header name prefixed with h: to log headers that were included in requests; for example, %X{h:User-Agent}.

14.3. Audit Logs

Audit logs let you track changes to your Infinispan environment so you know when changes occur and which users make them. Enable and configure audit logging to record server configuration events and administrative operations.

org.infinispan.AUDIT

Logging category that writes security audit messages to an audit.log file in the $ISPN_HOME/server/log directory.

14.3.1. Enabling Audit Logging

To record security audit messages, you need to enable the logging category in log4j2.xml.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Change the level for the org.infinispan.AUDIT logging category to INFO.

  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.

<!-- Set to INFO to enable audit logging -->
<Logger name="org.infinispan.AUDIT" additivity="false" level="INFO">
   <AppenderRef ref="AUDIT-FILE"/>
</Logger>

14.3.2. Configuring Audit Logging Appenders

Apache Log4j provides different appenders that you can use to send audit messages to a destination other than the default log file. For instance, if you want to send audit logs to a syslog daemon, JDBC database, or Apache Kafka server, you can configure an appender in log4j2.xml.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Comment or remove the default AUDIT-FILE rolling file appender.

    <!--RollingFile name="AUDIT-FILE"
      ...
    </RollingFile-->
  3. Add the desired logging appender for audit messages.

    For example, you could add a logging appender for a Kafka server as follows:

    <Kafka name="AUDIT-KAFKA" topic="audit">
      <PatternLayout pattern="%date %message"/>
      <Property name="bootstrap.servers">localhost:9092</Property>
    </Kafka>
  4. Save and close log4j2.xml.

Additional resources

14.3.3. Using Custom Audit Logging Implementations

You can create custom implementations of the org.infinispan.security.AuditLogger API if configuring Log4j appenders does not meet your needs.

Prerequisites
  • Implement org.infinispan.security.AuditLogger as required and package it in a JAR file.

Procedure
  1. Add your JAR to the server/lib directory in your Infinispan Server installation.

  2. Specify the fully qualified class name of your custom audit logger as the value for the audit-logger attribute on the authorization element in your cache container security configuration.

    For example, the following configuration defines my.package.CustomAuditLogger as the class for logging audit messages:

    <infinispan>
       <cache-container>
          <security>
             <authorization audit-logger="my.package.CustomAuditLogger"/>
          </security>
       </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

15. Configuring Infinispan Server Statistics

Enable statistics that Infinispan exports to a metrics endpoint or via JMX MBeans. Registering JMX MBeans also exposes management operations that you can perform remotely.

15.1. Enabling Infinispan Statistics

Configure Infinispan to export statistics for Cache Managers and caches.

Infinispan Server enables Cache Manager statistics by default. You must explicitly enable statistics for your caches.

Procedure

Modify your configuration to enable Infinispan statistics in one of the following ways:

  • Declarative: Add the statistics="true" attribute.

  • Programmatic: Call the .statistics() method.

Declarative
<!-- Enables statistics for the Cache Manager. -->
<cache-container statistics="true">
  <!-- Enables statistics for the named cache. -->
  <local-cache name="mycache" statistics="true"/>
</cache-container>
Programmatic
GlobalConfiguration globalConfig = new GlobalConfigurationBuilder()
  //Enables statistics for the Cache Manager.
  .cacheContainer().statistics(true)
  .build();

Configuration config = new ConfigurationBuilder()
  //Enables statistics for the named cache.
  .statistics().enable()
  .build();

15.2. Configuring Infinispan Metrics

Configure Infinispan to export gauges and histograms via the metrics endpoint.

Procedure
  • Turn gauges and histograms on or off in the metrics configuration as appropriate.

Declarative
<!-- Computes and collects statistics for the Cache Manager. -->
<cache-container statistics="true">
  <!-- Exports collected statistics as gauge and histogram metrics. -->
  <metrics gauges="true" histograms="true" />
</cache-container>
Programmatic
GlobalConfiguration globalConfig = new GlobalConfigurationBuilder()
  //Computes and collects statistics for the Cache Manager.
  .statistics().enable()
  //Exports collected statistics as gauge and histogram metrics.
  .metrics().gauges(true).histograms(true)
  .build();

15.3. Collecting Infinispan Metrics

Collect Infinispan metrics with monitoring tools such as Prometheus.

Prerequisites
  • Enable statistics. If you do not enable statistics, Infinispan provides 0 and -1 values for metrics.

  • Optionally enable histograms. By default Infinispan generates gauges but not histograms.

Procedure
  • Get metrics in Prometheus (OpenMetrics) format:

    $ curl -v http://localhost:11222/metrics
  • Get metrics in MicroProfile JSON format:

    $ curl --header "Accept: application/json" http://localhost:11222/metrics
Next steps

Configure monitoring applications to collect Infinispan metrics. For example, add the following to prometheus.yml:

static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:11222']

15.4. Configuring Infinispan to Register JMX MBeans

Infinispan can register JMX MBeans that you can use to collect statistics and perform administrative operations. You must enable statistics separately to JMX otherwise Infinispan provides 0 values for all statistic attributes.

Procedure

Modify your cache container configuration to enable JMX in one of the following ways:

  • Declarative: Add the <jmx enabled="true" /> element to the cache container.

  • Programmatic: Call the .jmx().enable() method.

Declarative
<cache-container>
  <jmx enabled="true" />
</cache-container>
Programmatic
GlobalConfiguration globalConfig = new GlobalConfigurationBuilder()
  .jmx().enable()
  .build();

15.4.1. Enabling JMX Remote Ports

Provide unique remote JMX ports to expose Infinispan MBeans through connections in JMXServiceURL format.

Infinispan Server does not expose JMX remotely via the single port endpoint. If you want to remotely access Infinispan Server via JMX you must enable a remote port.

Procedure
  • Pass the following system properties to Infinispan at startup:

    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote
    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=9999
    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false

15.4.2. Infinispan MBeans

Infinispan exposes JMX MBeans that represent manageable resources.

org.infinispan:type=Cache

Attributes and operations available for cache instances.

org.infinispan:type=CacheManager

Attributes and operations available for cache managers, including Infinispan cache and cluster health statistics.

For a complete list of available JMX MBeans along with descriptions and available operations and attributes, see the Infinispan JMX Components documentation.

Additional resources

16. Retrieving Health Statistics

Monitor the health of your Infinispan clusters in the following ways:

  • Programmatically with embeddedCacheManager.getHealth() method calls.

  • JMX MBeans

  • Infinispan REST Server

16.1. Accessing the Health API via JMX

Retrieve Infinispan cluster health statistics via JMX.

Procedure
  1. Connect to Infinispan server using any JMX capable tool such as JConsole and navigate to the following object:

    org.infinispan:type=CacheManager,name="default",component=CacheContainerHealth
  2. Select available MBeans to retrieve cluster health statistics.

16.2. Accessing the Health API via REST

Get Infinispan cluster health via the REST API.

Procedure
  • Invoke a GET request to retrieve cluster health.

    GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health

Infinispan responds with a JSON document such as the following:

{
    "cluster_health":{
        "cluster_name":"ISPN",
        "health_status":"HEALTHY",
        "number_of_nodes":2,
        "node_names":[
            "NodeA-36229",
            "NodeB-28703"
        ]
    },
    "cache_health":[
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"___protobuf_metadata"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache2"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"mycache"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache1"
        }
    ]

}

Get cache manager status as follows:

GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health/status
Reference

See the REST v2 (version 2) API documentation for more information.

17. Performing Rolling Upgrades for Infinispan Servers

Perform rolling upgrades of your Infinispan clusters to change between versions without downtime or data loss. Rolling upgrades migrate both your Infinispan servers and your data to the target version over Hot Rod.

17.1. Setting Up Target Clusters

Create a cluster that runs the target Infinispan version and uses a remote cache store to load data from the source cluster.

Prerequisites
  • Install a Infinispan cluster with the target upgrade version.

Ensure the network properties for the target cluster do not overlap with those for the source cluster. You should specify unique names for the target and source clusters in the JGroups transport configuration. Depending on your environment you can also use different network interfaces and specify port offsets to keep the target and source clusters separate.

Procedure
  1. Add a RemoteCacheStore on the target cluster for each cache you want to migrate from the source cluster.

    Remote cache stores use the Hot Rod protocol to retrieve data from remote Infinispan clusters. When you add the remote cache store to the target cluster, it can lazily load data from the source cluster to handle client requests.

  2. Switch clients over to the target cluster so it starts handling all requests.

    1. Update client configuration with the location of the target cluster.

    2. Restart clients.

17.1.1. Remote Cache Stores for Rolling Upgrades

You must use specific remote cache store configuration to perform rolling upgrades, as follows:

<!-- Remote cache stores for rolling upgrades must disable passivation. -->
<persistence passivation="false">
   <!-- The value of the cache attribute matches the name of a cache in the source cluster. Target clusters load data from this cache using the remote cache store. -->
   <!-- The "protocol-version" attribute matches the Hot Rod protocol version of the source cluster. 2.5 is the minimum version and is suitable for any upgrade path. -->
   <!-- You should enable segmentation for remote cache stores only if the number of segments in the target cluster matches the number of segments for the cache in the source cluster. -->
   <remote-store xmlns="urn:infinispan:config:store:remote:12.1"
                 cache="myDistCache"
                 protocol-version="2.5"
                 hotrod-wrapping="true"
                 raw-values="true"
                 segmented="false">
      <!-- Configures authentication and encryption according to the security realm of the source cluster. -->
      <security>
        <authentication server-name="infinispan">
          <digest username="admin"
                  password="changeme"
                  realm="default"/>
        </authentication>
      </security>
      <!-- Points to the location of the source cluster. -->
      <remote-server host="127.0.0.1" port="11222"/>
   </remote-store>
</persistence>

17.2. Synchronizing Data to Target Clusters

When your target cluster is running and handling client requests using a remote cache store to load data on demand, you can synchronize data from the source cluster to the target cluster.

This operation reads data from the source cluster and writes it to the target cluster. Data migrates to all nodes in the target cluster in parallel, with each node receiving a subset of the data. You must perform the synchronization for each cache in your Infinispan configuration.

Procedure
  1. Start the synchronization operation for each cache in your Infinispan configuration that you want to migrate to the target cluster.

    Use the Infinispan REST API and invoke POST requests with the ?action=sync- data parameter. For example, to synchronize data in a cache named "myCache" from a source cluster to a target cluster, do the following:

    POST /v2/caches/myCache?action=sync-data

    When the operation completes, Infinispan responds with the total number of entries copied to the target cluster.

    Alternatively, you can use JMX by invoking synchronizeData(migratorName=hotrod) on the RollingUpgradeManager MBean.

  2. Disconnect each node in the target cluster from the source cluster.

    For example, to disconnect the "myCache" cache from the source cluster, invoke the following POST request:

    POST /v2/caches/myCache?action=disconnect-source

    To use JMX, invoke disconnectSource(migratorName=hotrod) on the RollingUpgradeManager MBean.

Next steps

After you synchronize all data from the source cluster, the rolling upgrade process is complete. You can now decommission the source cluster.

18. Patching Infinispan Server Installations

Install and manage patches for Infinispan server installations.

You can apply patches to multiple Infinispan servers with different versions to upgrade to a desired target version. However, patches do not take effect if Infinispan servers are running. For this reason you install patches while servers are offline. If you want to upgrade Infinispan clusters without downtime, create a new cluster with the target version and perform a rolling upgrade to that version instead of patching.

18.1. Infinispan Server Patches

Infinispan server patches are .zip archives that contain artifacts that you can apply to your $ISPN_HOME directory to fix issues and add new features.

Patches also provide a set of rules for Infinispan to modify your server installation. When you apply patches, Infinispan overwrites some files and removes others, depending on if they are required for the target version.

However, Infinispan does not make any changes to configuration files that you have created or modified when applying a patch. Server patches do not modify or replace any custom configuration or data.

18.2. Creating Server Patches

You can create patches for Infinispan servers from an existing server installation.

You can create patches for Infinispan servers starting from 10.1.7. You can patch any 10.1 or later server installation. However you cannot patch 9.4.x or earlier servers with 10.1.7 or later.

You can also create patches that either upgrade or downgrade the Infinispan server version. For example, you can create a patch from version 10.1.7 and use it to upgrade version 10.1.5 or downgrade version 11.0.0.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to $ISPN_HOME for a Infinispan server installation that has the target version for the patch you want to create.

  2. Start the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh
    [disconnected]>
  3. Use the patch create command to generate a patch archive and include the -q option with a meaningful qualifier to describe the patch.

    [disconnected]> patch create -q "this is my test patch" path/to/mypatch.zip \
    path/to/target/server/home path/to/source/server/home

    The preceding command generates a .zip archive in the specified directory. Paths are relative to $ISPN_HOME for the target server.

    Create single patches for multiple different Infinispan versions, for example:

    [disconnected]> patch create -q "this is my test patch" path/to/mypatch.zip \
    path/to/target/server/home \
    path/to/source/server1/home path/to/source/server2/home

    Where server1 and server2 are different Infinispan versions where you can install "mypatch.zip".

  4. Describe the generated patch archive.

    [disconnected]> patch describe path/to/mypatch.zip
    
    Infinispan patch target=$target_version(my test patch)  source=$source_version created=$timestamp
    • $target_version is the Infinispan server version from which the patch was created.

    • $source_version is one or more Infinispan server versions to which you can apply the patch.

      You can apply patches to Infinispan servers that match the $source_version only. Attempting to apply patches to other versions results in the following exception:

      java.lang.IllegalStateException: The supplied patch cannot be applied to `$source_version`

18.3. Installing Server Patches

Apply patches to Infinispan servers to upgrade or downgrade an existing version.

Prerequisites
  • Create a server patch for the target version.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to $ISPN_HOME for the Infinispan server you want to patch.

  2. Stop the server if it is running.

    If you patch a server while it is running, the version changes take effect after restart. If you do not want to stop the server, create a new cluster with the target version and perform a rolling upgrade to that version instead of patching.

  3. Start the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh
    [disconnected]>
  4. Install the patch.

    [disconnected]> patch install path/to/patch.zip
    
    Infinispan patch target=$target_version source=$source_version \
    created=$timestamp installed=$timestamp
    • $target_version displays the Infinispan version that the patch installed.

    • $source_version displays the Infinispan version before you installed the patch.

  5. Start the server to verify the patch is installed.

    $ bin/server.sh
    ...
    ISPN080001: Infinispan Server $version

    If the patch is installed successfully $version matches $target_version.

Use the --server option to install patches in a different $ISPN_HOME directory, for example:

[disconnected]> patch install path/to/patch.zip --server=path/to/server/home

18.4. Rolling Back Server Patches

Remove patches from Infinispan servers by rolling them back and restoring the previous Infinispan version.

If a server has multiple patches installed, you can roll back the last installed patch only.

Rolling back patches does not revert configuration changes you make to Infinispan server. Before you roll back patches, you should ensure that your configuration is compatible with the version to which you are rolling back.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to $ISPN_HOME for the Infinispan server installation you want to roll back.

  2. Stop the server if it is running.

  3. Start the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh
    [disconnected]>
  4. List the installed patches.

    [disconnected]> patch ls
    
    Infinispan patch target=$target_version source=$source_version
    created=$timestamp installed=$timestamp
    • $target_version is the Infinispan server version after the patch was applied.

    • $source_version is the version for Infinispan server before the patch was applied. Rolling back the patch restores the server to this version.

  5. Roll back the last installed patch.

    [disconnected]> patch rollback
  6. Quit the CLI.

    [disconnected]> quit
  7. Start the server to verify the patch is rolled back to the previous version.

    $ bin/server.sh
    ...
    ISPN080001: Infinispan Server $version

    If the patch is rolled back successfully $version matches $source_version.

Use the --server option to rollback patches in a different $ISPN_HOME directory, for example:

[disconnected]> patch rollback --server=path/to/server/home

19. Troubleshooting Infinispan Servers

Gather diagnostic information about Infinispan server deployments and perform troubleshooting steps to resolve issues.

19.1. Getting Diagnostic Reports for Infinispan Servers

Infinispan servers provide aggregated reports in tar.gz archives that contain diagnostic information about both the Infinispan server and the host. The report provides details about CPU, memory, open files, network sockets and routing, threads, in addition to configuration and log files.

Procedure
  1. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  2. Use the server report command to download a tar.gz archive:

    [//containers/default]> server report
    Downloaded report 'infinispan-<hostname>-<timestamp>-report.tar.gz'
  3. Move the tar.gz file to a suitable location on your filesystem.

  4. Extract the tar.gz file with any archiving tool.

19.2. Changing Infinispan Server Logging Configuration at Runtime

Modify the logging configuration for Infinispan servers at runtime to temporarily adjust logging to troubleshoot issues and perform root cause analysis.

Modifying the logging configuration through the CLI is a runtime-only operation, which means that changes:

  • Are not saved to the log4j2.xml file. Restarting server nodes or the entire cluster resets the logging configuration to the default properties in the log4j2.xml file.

  • Apply only to the nodes in the cluster when you invoke the CLI. Nodes that join the cluster after you change the logging configuration use the default properties.

Procedure
  1. Create a CLI connection to Infinispan.

  2. Use the logging to make the required adjustments.

    • List all appenders defined on the server:

[//containers/default]> logging list-appenders

The preceding command returns:

{
  "STDOUT" : {
    "name" : "STDOUT"
  },
  "JSON-FILE" : {
    "name" : "JSON-FILE"
  },
  "HR-ACCESS-FILE" : {
    "name" : "HR-ACCESS-FILE"
  },
  "FILE" : {
    "name" : "FILE"
  },
  "REST-ACCESS-FILE" : {
    "name" : "REST-ACCESS-FILE"
  }
}
  • List all logger configurations defined on the server:

[//containers/default]> logging list-loggers

The preceding command returns:

[ {
  "name" : "",
  "level" : "INFO",
  "appenders" : [ "STDOUT", "FILE" ]
}, {
  "name" : "org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG",
  "level" : "INFO",
  "appenders" : [ "HR-ACCESS-FILE" ]
}, {
  "name" : "com.arjuna",
  "level" : "WARN",
  "appenders" : [ ]
}, {
  "name" : "org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG",
  "level" : "INFO",
  "appenders" : [ "REST-ACCESS-FILE" ]
} ]
  • Add and modify logger configurations with the set subcommand

For example, the following command sets the logging level for the org.infinispan package to DEBUG:

[//containers/default]> logging set --level=DEBUG org.infinispan
  • Remove existing logger configurations with the remove subcommand.

For example, the following command removes the org.infinispan logger configuration, which means the root configuration is used instead:

[//containers/default]> logging remove org.infinispan

19.3. Resource Statistics

You can inspect server-collected statistics for some of the resources within a Infinispan server using the stats command.

Use the stats command either from the context of a resource which collects statistics (containers, caches) or with a path to such a resource:

[//containers/default]> stats
{
  "statistics_enabled" : true,
  "number_of_entries" : 0,
  "hit_ratio" : 0.0,
  "read_write_ratio" : 0.0,
  "time_since_start" : 0,
  "time_since_reset" : 49,
  "current_number_of_entries" : 0,
  "current_number_of_entries_in_memory" : 0,
  "total_number_of_entries" : 0,
  "off_heap_memory_used" : 0,
  "data_memory_used" : 0,
  "stores" : 0,
  "retrievals" : 0,
  "hits" : 0,
  "misses" : 0,
  "remove_hits" : 0,
  "remove_misses" : 0,
  "evictions" : 0,
  "average_read_time" : 0,
  "average_read_time_nanos" : 0,
  "average_write_time" : 0,
  "average_write_time_nanos" : 0,
  "average_remove_time" : 0,
  "average_remove_time_nanos" : 0,
  "required_minimum_number_of_nodes" : -1
}
[//containers/default]> stats /containers/default/caches/mycache
{
  "time_since_start" : -1,
  "time_since_reset" : -1,
  "current_number_of_entries" : -1,
  "current_number_of_entries_in_memory" : -1,
  "total_number_of_entries" : -1,
  "off_heap_memory_used" : -1,
  "data_memory_used" : -1,
  "stores" : -1,
  "retrievals" : -1,
  "hits" : -1,
  "misses" : -1,
  "remove_hits" : -1,
  "remove_misses" : -1,
  "evictions" : -1,
  "average_read_time" : -1,
  "average_read_time_nanos" : -1,
  "average_write_time" : -1,
  "average_write_time_nanos" : -1,
  "average_remove_time" : -1,
  "average_remove_time_nanos" : -1,
  "required_minimum_number_of_nodes" : -1
}