Infinispan server is a managed, distributed, and clusterable data grid that provides elastic scaling and high performance access to caches from multiple endpoints, such as Hot Rod and REST.

1. Getting Started with Infinispan Server

Quickly set up Infinispan server and learn the basics.

1.1. Infinispan Server Requirements

Check host system requirements for the Infinispan server.

Infinispan server requires a Java Virtual Machine and supports:

  • Java 8

  • Java 11

1.2. Downloading Server Distributions

The Infinispan server distribution is an archive of Java libraries (JAR files), configuration files, and a data directory.

Procedure

Download the Infinispan 11.0 server from Infinispan downloads.

Verification

Use the checksum to verify the integrity of your download.

  1. Run the sha1sum command with the server download archive as the argument, for example:

    $ sha1sum infinispan-server-${version}.zip
  2. Compare with the SHA-1 checksum value on the Infinispan downloads page.

Reference

Infinispan Server README describes the contents of the server distribution.

1.3. Installing Infinispan Server

Extract the Infinispan server archive to any directory on your host.

Procedure

Use any extraction tool with the server archive, for example:

$ unzip infinispan-server-${version}.zip

The resulting directory is your $ISPN_HOME.

1.4. Running Infinispan Servers

Spin up Infinispan server instances that automatically form clusters. Learn how to create cache definitions to store your data.

1.4.1. Starting Infinispan Servers

Launch Infinispan server with the startup script.

Procedure
  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Run the server script.

    Linux
    $ bin/server.sh
    Microsoft Windows
    bin\server.bat

    The server gives you these messages when it starts:

    INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (main) ISPN080004: Protocol SINGLE_PORT listening
    on 127.0.0.1:11222
    INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (main) ISPN080001: Infinispan Server ${version}
    started in 7453ms

Hello Infinispan!

  • Open 127.0.0.1:11222 in any browser to see the Infinispan server welcome message.

Reference

Infinispan Server README describes command line arguments for the server script.

1.4.2. Verifying Infinispan Cluster Discovery

Infinispan servers running on the same network discover each other with the MPING protocol.

This procedure shows you how to use Infinispan server command arguments to start two instances on the same host and verify that the cluster view forms.

Prerequisites

Start a Infinispan server.

Procedure
  1. Install and run a new Infinispan server instance.

    1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

    2. Copy the root directory to server2.

      $ cp -r server server2
  2. Specify a port offset and the location of the server2 root directory.

    $ bin/server.sh -o 100 -s server2
Verification

Running servers return the following messages when new servers join clusters:

INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN000094: Received new cluster view for channel cluster:
[<server_hostname>|3] (2) [<server_hostname>, <server2_hostname>]
INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN100000: Node <server2_hostname> joined the cluster

Servers return the following messages when they join clusters:

INFO  [org.infinispan.remoting.transport.jgroups.JGroupsTransport] (main)
ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster
INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (main)
ISPN000094: Received new cluster view for channel cluster:
[<server_hostname>|3] (2) [<server_hostname>, <server2_hostname>]
Reference

Infinispan Server README describes command line arguments for the server script.

1.4.3. Performing Operations with the Infinispan CLI

Connect to servers with the Infinispan command line interface (CLI) to access data and perform administrative functions.

Starting the Infinispan CLI

Start the Infinispan CLI as follows:

  1. Open a terminal in $ISPN_HOME.

  2. Run the CLI.

    $ bin/cli.sh
    [disconnected]>
Connecting to Infinispan Servers

Do one of the following:

  • Run the connect command to connect to a Infinispan server on the default port of 11222:

    [disconnected]> connect
    [hostname1@cluster//containers/default]>
  • Specify the location of a Infinispan server. For example, connect to a local server that has a port offset of 100:

    [disconnected]> connect 127.0.0.1:11322
    [hostname2@cluster//containers/default]>

Press the tab key to display available commands and options. Use the -h option to display help text.

Creating Caches from Templates

Use Infinispan cache templates to add caches with recommended default settings.

Procedure
  1. Create a distributed, synchronous cache from a template and name it "mycache".

    [//containers/default]> create cache --template=org.infinispan.DIST_SYNC mycache

    Press the tab key after the --template= argument to list available cache templates.

  2. Retrieve the cache configuration.

    [//containers/default]> describe caches/mycache
    {
      "distributed-cache" : {
        "mode" : "SYNC",
        "remote-timeout" : 17500,
        "state-transfer" : {
          "timeout" : 60000
        },
        "transaction" : {
          "mode" : "NONE"
        },
        "locking" : {
          "concurrency-level" : 1000,
          "acquire-timeout" : 15000,
          "striping" : false
        }
      }
    }
Adding Cache Entries

Add data to caches with the Infinispan CLI.

Prerequisites
  • Create a cache named "mycache".

Procedure
  1. Add a key/value pair to mycache.

    [//containers/default]> put --cache=mycache hello world

    If the CLI is in the context of a cache, do put k1 v1 for example:

    [//containers/default]> cd caches/mycache
    [//containers/default/caches/mycache]> put hello world
  2. List keys in the cache.

    [//containers/default]> ls caches/mycache
    hello
  3. Get the value for the hello key.

    1. Navigate to the cache.

      [//containers/default]> cd caches/mycache
    2. Use the get command to retrieve the key value.

      [//containers/default/caches/mycache]> get hello
      world
Shutting Down Infinispan Servers

Use the CLI to gracefully shutdown running servers. This ensures that Infinispan passivates all entries to disk and persists state.

  • Use the shutdown server command to stop individual servers, for example:

    [//containers/default]> shutdown server server_hostname
  • Use the shutdown cluster command to stop all servers joined to the cluster, for example:

    [//containers/default]> shutdown cluster

Infinispan servers log the following shutdown messages:

INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN080002: Infinispan Server stopping
INFO  [org.infinispan.CONTAINER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN000029: Passivating all entries to disk
INFO  [org.infinispan.CONTAINER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN000030: Passivated 28 entries in 46 milliseconds
INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN000080: Disconnecting JGroups channel cluster
INFO  [org.infinispan.CONTAINER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN000390: Persisted state, version=<Infinispan version> timestamp=YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS
INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN080003: Infinispan Server stopped
INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (Thread-0) ISPN080002: Infinispan Server stopping
INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (Thread-0) ISPN080003: Infinispan Server stopped

When you shutdown Infinispan clusters, the shutdown messages include:

INFO  [org.infinispan.SERVER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN080029: Cluster shutdown
INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (pool-3-thread-1) ISPN000080: Disconnecting JGroups channel cluster

2. Configuring Infinispan Server Networking

Infinispan servers let you configure interfaces and ports to make endpoints available across your network.

By default, Infinispan servers multiplex endpoints to a single TCP/IP port and automatically detect protocols of inbound client requests.

2.1. Server Interfaces

Infinispan servers can use different strategies for binding to IP addresses.

2.1.1. Address Strategy

Uses an inet-address strategy that maps a single public interface to the IPv4 loopback address (127.0.0.1).

<interfaces>
  <interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${infinispan.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

You can use the CLI -b argument or the infinispan.bind.address property to select a specific address from the command-line. See Changing the Default Bind Address.

2.1.2. Loopback Strategy

Selects a loopback address.

  • IPv4 the address block 127.0.0.0/8 is reserved for loopback addresses.

  • IPv6 the address block ::1 is the only loopback address.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <loopback/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.3. Non-Loopback Strategy

Selects a non-loopback address.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <non-loopback/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.4. Network Address Strategy

Selects networks based on IP address.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.5. Any Address Strategy

Selects the INADDR_ANY wildcard address. As a result Infinispan servers listen on all interfaces.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <any-address/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

Selects a link-local IP address.

  • IPv4 the address block 169.254.0.0/16 (169.254.0.0 – 169.254.255.255) is reserved for link-local addressing.

  • IPv6 the address block fe80::/10 is reserved for link-local unicast addressing.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.7. Site Local Strategy

Selects a site-local (private) IP address.

  • IPv4 the address blocks 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16 are reserved for site-local addressing.

  • IPv6 the address block fc00::/7 is reserved for site-local unicast addressing.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.8. Match Host Strategy

Resolves the host name and selects one of the IP addresses that is assigned to any network interface.

Infinispan servers enumerate all available operating system interfaces to locate IP addresses resolved from the host name in your configuration.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.9. Match Interface Strategy

Selects an IP address assigned to a network interface that matches a regular expression.

Infinispan servers enumerate all available operating system interfaces to locate the interface name in your configuration.

Use regular expressions with this strategy for additional flexibility.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <match-interface value="eth0"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.10. Match Address Strategy

Similar to inet-address but selects an IP address using a regular expression.

Infinispan servers enumerate all available operating system interfaces to locate the IP address in your configuration.

Use regular expressions with this strategy for additional flexibility.

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <match-address value="132\..*"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.11. Fallback Strategy

Interface configurations can include multiple strategies. Infinispan servers try each strategy in the declared order.

For example, with the following configuration, Infinispan servers first attempt to match a host, then an IP address, and then fall back to the INADDR_ANY wildcard address:

<interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
        <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
        <match-address value="132\..*"/>
        <any-address/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

2.1.12. Changing the Default Bind Address for Infinispan Servers

You can use the server -b switch or the infinispan.bind.address system property to bind to a different address.

For example, bind the public interface to 127.0.0.2 as follows:

Linux
$ bin/server.sh -b 127.0.0.2
Windows
bin\server.bat -b 127.0.0.2

2.2. Socket Bindings

Socket bindings map endpoint connectors to server interfaces and ports.

By default, Infinispan servers provide the following socket bindings:

<socket-bindings default-interface="public" port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
    <socket-binding name="default" port="${infinispan.bind.port:11222}"/>
    <socket-binding name="memcached" port="11221"/>
</socket-bindings>
  • socket-bindings declares the default interface and port offset.

  • default binds to hotrod and rest connectors to the default port 11222.

  • memcached binds the memcached connector to port 11221.

    The memcached endpoint is disabled by default.

To override the default interface for socket-binding declarations, specify the interface attribute.

For example, you add an interface declaration named "private":

<interfaces>
  ...
  <interface name="private">
    <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

You can then specify interface="private" in a socket-binding declaration to bind to the private IP address, as follows:

<socket-bindings default-interface="public" port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
  ...
  <socket-binding name="private_binding" interface="private" port="1234"/>
</socket-bindings>

2.2.1. Specifying Port Offsets

Configure port offsets with Infinispan servers when running multiple instances on the same host. The default port offset is 0.

Use the -o switch with the Infinispan CLI or the infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset system property to set port offsets.

For example, start a server instance with an offset of 100 as follows. With the default configuration, this results in the Infinispan server listening on port 11322.

Linux
$ bin/server.sh -o 100
Windows
bin\server.bat -o 100

2.3. Infinispan Protocol Handling

Infinispan servers use a router connector to expose multiple protocols over the same TCP port, 11222. Using a single port for multiple protocols simplifies configuration and management and increases security by reducing the attack surface for unauthorized users.

Infinispan servers handle HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, and Hot Rod protocol requests via port 11222 as follows:

HTTP/1.1 upgrade headers

Client requests can include the HTTP/1.1 upgrade header field to initiate HTTP/1.1 connections with Infinispan servers. Client applications can then send the Upgrade: protocol header field, where protocol is a Infinispan server endpoint.

Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)/Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Client applications specify Server Name Indication (SNI) mappings for Infinispan server endpoints to negotiate protocols in a secure manner.

Automatic Hot Rod detection

Client requests that include Hot Rod headers automatically route to Hot Rod endpoints if the single port router configuration includes Hot Rod.

2.3.1. Configuring Clients for ALPN

Configure clients to provide ALPN messages for protocol negotiation during TLS handshakes with Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites
  • Enable Infinispan server endpoints with encryption.

Procedure
  1. Provide your client application with the appropriate libraries to handle ALPN/TLS exchanges with Infinispan servers.

    Infinispan uses Wildfly OpenSSL bindings for Java.

  2. Configure clients with trust stores as appropriate.

Programmatically
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()
      .addServers("127.0.0.1:11222");

builder.security().ssl().enable()
      .trustStoreFileName("truststore.pkcs12")
      .trustStorePassword(DEFAULT_TRUSTSTORE_PASSWORD.toCharArray());

RemoteCacheManager remoteCacheManager = new RemoteCacheManager(builder.build());
RemoteCache<String, String> cache = remoteCacheManager.getCache("default"");
Hot Rod client properties
infinispan.client.hotrod.server_list = 127.0.0.1:11222
infinispan.client.hotrod.use_ssl = true
infinispan.client.hotrod.trust_store_file_name = truststore.pkcs12
infinispan.client.hotrod.trust_store_password = trust_store_password

3. Configuring Infinispan Server Endpoints

Infinispan servers provide listener endpoints that handle requests from remote client applications.

3.1. Infinispan Endpoints

Infinispan endpoints expose the CacheManager interface over different connector protocols so you can remotely access data and perform operations to manage and maintain Infinispan clusters.

You can define multiple endpoint connectors on different socket bindings.

3.1.1. Hot Rod

Hot Rod is a binary TCP client-server protocol designed to provide faster data access and improved performance in comparison to text-based protocols.

Infinispan provides Hot Rod client libraries in Java, C++, C#, Node.js and other programming languages.

Topology state transfer

Infinispan uses topology caches to provide clients with cluster views. Topology caches contain entries that map internal JGroups transport addresses to exposed Hot Rod endpoints.

When client send requests, Infinispan servers compare the topology ID in request headers with the topology ID from the cache. Infinispan servers send new topology views if client have older topology IDs.

Cluster topology views allow Hot Rod clients to immediately detect when nodes join and leave, which enables dynamic load balancing and failover.

In distributed cache modes, the consistent hashing algorithm also makes it possible to route Hot Rod client requests directly to primary owners.

3.1.2. REST

Infinispan exposes a RESTful interface that allows HTTP clients to access data, monitor and maintain clusters, and perform administrative operations.

You can use standard HTTP load balancers to provide clients with load balancing and failover capabilities. However, HTTP load balancers maintain static cluster views and require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

3.1.3. Memcached

Infinispan provides an implementation of the Memcached text protocol for remote client access.

The Infinispan Memcached server supports clustering with replicated and distributed cache modes.

There are some Memcached client implementations, such as the Cache::Memcached Perl client, that can offer load balancing and failover detection capabilities with static lists of Infinispan server addresses that require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

3.1.4. Protocol Comparison

Hot Rod HTTP / REST Memcached

Topology-aware

Y

N

N

Hash-aware

Y

N

N

Encryption

Y

Y

N

Authentication

Y

Y

N

Conditional ops

Y

Y

Y

Bulk ops

Y

N

N

Transactions

Y

N

N

Listeners

Y

N

N

Query

Y

Y

N

Execution

Y

N

N

Cross-site failover

Y

N

N

3.2. Endpoint Connectors

You configure Infinispan server endpoints with connector declarations that specify socket bindings, authentication mechanisms, and encryption configuration.

The default endpoint connector configuration is as follows:

<endpoints socket-binding="default">
   <hotrod-connector name="hotrod"/>
   <rest-connector name="rest"/>
   <memcached-connector socket-binding="memcached"/>
</endpoints>
  • endpoints contains endpoint connector declarations and defines global configuration for endpoints such as default socket bindings, security realms, and whether clients must present valid TLS certificates.

  • <hotrod-connector name="hotrod"/> declares a Hot Rod connector.

  • <rest-connector name="rest"/> declares a Hot Rod connector.

  • <memcached-connector socket-binding="memcached"/> declares a Memcached connector that uses the memcached socket binding.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available endpoint configuration.

3.2.1. Hot Rod Connectors

Hot Rod connector declarations enable Hot Rod servers.

<hotrod-connector name="hotrod">
  <topology-state-transfer />
  <authentication>
    ...
  </authentication>
  <encryption>
    ...
  </encryption>
</hotrod-connector>
  • name="hotrod" logically names the Hot Rod connector.

  • topology-state-transfer tunes the state transfer operations that provide Hot Rod clients with cluster topology.

  • authentication configures SASL authentication mechanisms.

  • encryption configures TLS settings for client connections.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available Hot Rod connector configuration.

3.2.2. REST Connectors

REST connector declarations enable REST servers.

<rest-connector name="rest">
  <authentication>
    ...
  </authentication>
  <cors-rules>
    ...
  </cors-rules>
  <encryption>
    ...
  </encryption>
</rest-connector>
  • name="rest" logically names the REST connector.

  • authentication configures authentication mechanisms.

  • cors-rules specifies CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) rules for cross-domain requests.

  • encryption configures TLS settings for client connections.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available REST connector configuration.

3.2.3. Memcached Connectors

Memcached connector declarations enable Memcached servers.

Infinispan servers do not enable Memcached connectors by default.

<memcached-connector name="memcached" socket-binding="memcached" cache="mycache" />
  • name="memcached" logically names the Memcached connector.

  • socket-binding="memcached" declares a unique socket binding for the Memcached connector.

  • cache="mycache" names the cache that the Memcached connector exposes. The default is memcachedCache.

    Memcached connectors expose a single cache only. To expose multiple caches through the Memcached endpoint, you must declare additional connectors. Each Memcached connector must also have a unique socket binding.

Reference

urn:infinispan:server schema provides all available Memcached connector configuration.

4. Monitoring Infinispan Servers

4.1. Working with Infinispan Server Logs

Infinispan uses Apache Log4j 2 to provide configurable logging mechanisms that capture details about the environment and record cache operations for troubleshooting purposes and root cause analysis.

4.1.1. Infinispan Log Files

Infinispan writes log messages to the following directory:
$ISPN_HOME/${infinispan.server.root}/log

server.log

Messages in human readable format, including boot logs that relate to the server startup.
Infinispan creates this file by default when you launch servers.

server.log.json

Messages in JSON format that let you parse and analyze Infinispan logs.
Infinispan creates this file when you enable the JSON-FILE appender.

4.1.2. Configuring Infinispan Log Properties

You configure Infinispan logs with log4j2.xml, which is described in the Log4j 2 manual.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/${infinispan.server.root}/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Change logging configuration as appropriate.

  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.

Log Levels

Log levels indicate the nature and severity of messages.

Log level Description

TRACE

Fine-grained debug messages, capturing the flow of individual requests through the application.

DEBUG

Messages for general debugging, not related to an individual request.

INFO

Messages about the overall progress of applications, including lifecycle events.

WARN

Events that can lead to error or degrade performance.

ERROR

Error conditions that might prevent operations or activites from being successful but do not prevent applications from running.

FATAL

Events that could cause critical service failure and application shutdown.

In addition to the levels of individual messages presented above, the configuration allows two more values: ALL to include all messages, and OFF to exclude all messages.

Infinispan Log Categories

Infinispan provides categories for INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL level messages that organize logs by functional area.

org.infinispan.CLUSTER

Messages specific to Infinispan clustering that include state transfer operations, rebalancing events, partitioning, and so on.

org.infinispan.CONFIG

Messages specific to Infinispan configuration.

org.infinispan.CONTAINER

Messages specific to the data container that include expiration and eviction operations, cache listener notifications, transactions, and so on.

org.infinispan.PERSISTENCE

Messages specific to cache loaders and stores.

org.infinispan.SECURITY

Messages specific to Infinispan security.

org.infinispan.SERVER

Messages specific to Infinispan servers.

org.infinispan.XSITE

Messages specific to cross-site replication operations.

Log Appenders

Log appenders define how Infinispan records log messages.

CONSOLE

Write log messages to the host standard out (stdout) or standard error (stderr) stream.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.ConsoleAppender class by default.

FILE

Write log messages to a file.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.

JSON-FILE

Write log messages to a file in JSON format.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.

Log Patterns

The CONSOLE and FILE appenders use a PatternLayout to format the log messages according to a pattern.

An example is the default pattern in the FILE appender:
%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} %-5p (%t) [%c{1}] %m%throwable%n

  • %d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} adds the current time and date.

  • %-5p specifies the log level, aligned to the right.

  • %t adds the name of the current thread.

  • %c{1} adds the short name of the logging category.

  • %m adds the log message.

  • %throwable adds the exception stack trace.

  • %n adds a new line.

Patterns are fully described in the PatternLayout documentation .

Enabling and Configuring the JSON Log Handler

Infinispan provides a JSON log handler to write messages in JSON format.

Prerequisites

Ensure that Infinispan is not running. You cannot dynamically enable log handlers.

Procedure
  1. Open $ISPN_HOME/${infinispan.server.root}/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.

  2. Uncomment the JSON-FILE appender and comment out the FILE appender:

          <!--<AppenderRef ref="FILE"/>-->
          <AppenderRef ref="JSON-FILE"/>
  3. Optionally configure the JSON appender and layout.

  4. Save and close logging.properties.

When you start Infinispan, it writes each log message as a JSON map in the following file:
$ISPN_HOME/${infinispan.server.root}/log/server.log.json

4.1.3. Access Logs

Hot Rod and REST endpoints can record all inbound client requests as log entries with the following categories:

  • org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG logging category for the Hot Rod endpoint.

  • org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG logging category for the REST endpoint.

Enabling Access Logs

Access logs for Hot Rod and REST endpoints are disabled by default. To enable either logging category, set the level to TRACE in the Infinispan logging configuration, as in the following example:

<Logger name="org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG" additivity="false" level="INFO">
   <AppenderRef ref="HR-ACCESS-FILE"/>
</Logger>
Access Log Properties

The default format for access logs is as follows:

`%X{address} %X{user} [%d{dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z}] &quot;%X{method} %m %X{protocol}&quot; %X{status} %X{requestSize} %X{responseSize} %X{duration}%n`

The preceding format creates log entries such as the following:

127.0.0.1 - [DD/MM/YYYY:HH:MM:SS +0000] "PUT /rest/v2/caches/default/key HTTP/1.1" 404 5 77 10

Logging properties use the %X{name} notation and let you modify the format of access logs. The following are the default logging properties:

Property Description

address

Either the X-Forwarded-For header or the client IP address.

user

Principal name, if using authentication.

method

Method used. PUT, GET, and so on.

protocol

Protocol used. HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, HOTROD/2.9, and so on.

status

An HTTP status code for the REST endpoint. OK or an exception for the Hot Rod endpoint.

requestSize

Size, in bytes, of the request.

responseSize

Size, in bytes, of the response.

duration

Number of milliseconds that the server took to handle the request.

Use the header name prefixed with h: to log headers that were included in requests; for example, %X{h:User-Agent}.

4.2. Retrieving Server Health Statistics

Monitor the health of your Infinispan clusters in the following ways:

  • Programmatically with embeddedCacheManager.getHealth() method calls.

  • JMX MBeans

  • Infinispan REST Server

4.2.1. Accessing the Health API via JMX

Retrieve Infinispan cluster health statistics via JMX.

Procedure
  1. Connect to Infinispan server using any JMX capable tool such as JConsole and navigate to the following object:

    org.infinispan:type=CacheManager,name="default",component=CacheContainerHealth
  2. Select available MBeans to retrieve cluster health statistics.

4.2.2. Accessing the Health API via REST

Get Infinispan cluster health via the REST API.

Procedure
  • Invoke a GET request to retrieve cluster health.

    GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health

Infinispan responds with a JSON document such as the following:

{
    "cluster_health":{
        "cluster_name":"ISPN",
        "health_status":"HEALTHY",
        "number_of_nodes":2,
        "node_names":[
            "NodeA-36229",
            "NodeB-28703"
        ]
    },
    "cache_health":[
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"___protobuf_metadata"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache2"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"mycache"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache1"
        }
    ]

}

Get cache manager status as follows:

GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health/status
Reference

See the REST v2 (version 2) API documentation for more information.

4.3. Enabling and Collecting JMX Statistics

Infinispan exposes JMX objects that you can use to collect statistics, monitor deployments, and manage Infinispan clusters.

4.3.1. Enabling JMX Statistics

Infinispan always creates and registers MBeans but only exposes meaningful values if you explicitly enable JMX statistics.

Procedure
  • Enable statistics globally or for specific caches.

Declaratively

Globally enable statistics:

<cache-container statistics="true"/>

Enable statistics at the cache level:

<local-cache name="mycache" statistics="true"/>
Programmatically

Globally enable statistics:

GlobalConfigurationBuilder globalConfigurationBuilder = ...
globalConfigurationBuilder.jmx().enable();

Enable statistics at the cache level:

ConfigurationBuilder configurationBuilder = ...
configurationBuilder.statistics().enable();

4.3.2. Infinispan MBeans

Infinispan exposes JMX MBeans that represent manageable resources.

org.infinispan:type=Cache

Attributes and operations available for cache instances.

org.infinispan:type=CacheManager

Attributes and operations available for cache managers, including Infinispan cache and cluster health statistics.

For a complete list of available JMX MBeans along with descriptions and available operations and attributes, see the Infinispan JMX Components documentation.

4.3.3. Naming Multiple Cache Managers

In cases where multiple Infinispan cache managers run on the same JVM, you should uniquely identify each cache manager to prevent conflicts.

Procedure
  • Uniquely identify each cache manager in your environment.

For example, the following examples specify "Hibernate2LC" as the cache manager name, which results in a JMX MBean named org.infinispan:type=CacheManager,name="Hibernate2LC".

Declaratively
<cache-container statistics="true" name="Hibernate2LC"/>
Programmatically
GlobalConfigurationBuilder globalConfigurationBuilder = ...
globalConfigurationBuilder.jmx()
    .enable()
    .cacheManagerName("Hibernate2LC");

4.3.4. Registering MBeans In Custom MBean Servers

Infinispan includes an MBeanServerLookup interface that you can use to register MBeans in custom MBeanServer instances.

Procedure
  1. Create an implementation of MBeanServerLookup so that the getMBeanServer() method returns the custom MBeanServer instance.

  2. Configure Infinispan with the fully qualified name of your class, as in the following example:

Declaratively
<cache-container statistics="true">
   <jmx mbean-server-lookup="com.acme.MyMBeanServerLookup" />
</cache-container>
Programmatically
GlobalConfigurationBuilder globalConfigurationBuilder = ...
globalConfigurationBuilder.jmx()
    .enable()
    .mBeanServerLookup(new com.acme.MyMBeanServerLookup());

4.4. Collecting Infinispan Metrics

Infinispan servers provide monitoring data through an HTTP metrics endpoint that exposes OS, JVM, and application-level statistics.

Procedure
  1. Start at least one Infinispan server.

  2. Test the metrics endpoint with any HTTP client, as in the following examples:

    To get metrics in Prometheus or OpenMetrics format:

    $ curl -v http://localhost:11222/metrics

    To get metrics in Microprofile JSON format:

    $ curl --header "Accept: application/json" http://localhost:11222/metrics

    If you configure Infinispan servers with security, you should include the appropriate credentials or client certificates to access the metrics endpoint.

    Infinispan responds with monitoring data.

Next steps

Configure monitoring applications to collect Infinispan metrics from the endpoint as appropriate. For example, add the following to your prometheus.yml file:

static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:9090', 'localhost:11222']

5. Securing Infinispan Servers

Protect Infinispan servers against network attacks and unauthorized access.

5.1. Cache Authorization

Infinispan can restrict access to data by authorizing requests to perform cache operations.

Infinispan maps identities, or Principals of type java.security.Principal, to security roles in your configuration. For example, a Principal named reader maps to a security role named reader.

Infinispan lets you assign permissions to the various roles to authorize cache operations. For example, Cache.get() requires read permission while Cache.put() requires write permission.

In this case, iff a client with the reader role attempts to write an entry, Infinispan denies the request and throws a security exception. However, if a client with the writer role sends a write request, Infinispan validates authorization and issues the client with a token for subsequent operations.

5.1.1. Cache Authorization Configuration

Infinispan configuration for cache authorization is as follows:

<infinispan>
   <cache-container default-cache="secured" name="secured">
      <security>
         <authorization> (1)
            <identity-role-mapper /> (2)
            <role name="admin" permissions="ALL" /> (3)
            <role name="reader" permissions="READ" />
            <role name="writer" permissions="WRITE" />
            <role name="supervisor" permissions="READ WRITE EXEC"/>
         </authorization>
      </security>
      <local-cache name="secured">
         <security>
            <authorization roles="admin reader writer supervisor" /> (4)
         </security>
      </local-cache>
   </cache-container>

</infinispan>
1 configures cache authorization for the cache container.
2 specifies an implementation of PrincipalRoleMapper that converts Principal names to roles.
3 names roles and assigns permissions that control access to data.
4 defines the authorized roles for the cache.

5.2. Defining Infinispan Server Security Realms

Security realms provide identity, encryption, authentication, and authorization information to Infinispan server endpoints.

5.2.1. Property Realms

Property realms use property files to define users and groups.

users.properties maps usernames to passwords in plain-text format. Passwords can also be pre-digested if you use the DIGEST-MD5 SASL mechanism or Digest HTTP mechanism.

myuser=a_password
user2=another_password

groups.properties maps users to roles.

supervisor=myuser,user2
reader=myuser
writer=myuser
Property realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles"> (1)
            <user-properties path="users.properties" (2)
                             relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path" (3)
                             plain-text="true"/> (4)
            <group-properties path="groups.properties" (5)
                              relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"/>
         </properties-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Defines groups as roles for Infinispan server authorization.
2 Specifies the users.properties file.
3 Specifies that the file is relative to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.
4 Specifies that the passwords in users.properties are in plain-text format.
5 Specifies the groups.properties file.
Supported authentication mechanisms

Property realms support the following authentication mechanisms:

  • SASL: PLAIN, DIGEST-*, and SCRAM-*

  • HTTP (REST): Basic and Digest

Adding Users to Property Realms

Infinispan server provides a user-tool script that lets you easily add new user/role mappings to properties files.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to your $ISPN_HOME directory.

  2. Run the user-tool script in the bin folder.

For example, create a new user named "myuser" with a password of "qwer1234!" that belongs to the "supervisor", "reader", and "writer" groups:

Linux
$ bin/user-tools.sh -a -u myuser -p "qwer1234!" -g supervisor,reader,writer
Microsoft Windows
$ bin\user-tools.bat -a -u myuser -p "qwer1234!" -g supervisor,reader,writer

5.2.2. LDAP Realms

LDAP realms connect to LDAP servers, such as OpenLDAP, Red Hat Directory Server, Apache Directory Server, or Microsoft Active Directory, to authenticate users and obtain membership information.

LDAP servers can have different entry layouts, depending on the type of server and deployment. For this reason, LDAP realm configuration is complex. It is beyond the scope of this document to provide examples for all possibile configurations.

LDAP realm configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <ldap-realm name="ldap" (1)
                    url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389" (2)
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org" (3)
                    credential="strongPassword"
                    connection-timeout="3000" read-timeout="30000" (4)
                    connection-pooling="true" referral-mode="ignore"
                    page-size="30"
                    direct-verification="true"> (5)
            <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid" (6)
                              search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"> (7)
               <attribute-mapping> (8)
                  <attribute from="cn"
                             to="Roles"
                             filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                             filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"/>
               </attribute-mapping>
            </identity-mapping>
         </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Names the LDAP realm.
2 Specifies the LDAP server connection URL.
3 Specifies a principal and credentials to connect to the LDAP server.

The principal for LDAP connections must have necessary privileges to perform LDAP queries and access specific attributes.

4 Optionally tunes LDAP server connections by specifying connection timeouts and so on.
5 Verifies user credentials. Infinispan attempts to connect to the LDAP server using the configured credentials. Alternatively, you can use the user-password-mapper element that specifies a password.
6 Maps LDAP entries to identities. The rdn-identifier specifies an LDAP attribute that finds the user entry based on a provided identifier, which is typically a username; for example, the uid or sAMAccountName attribute.
7 Defines a starting context that limits searches to the LDAP subtree that contains the user entries.
8 Retrieves all the groups of which the user is a member. There are typically two ways in which membership information is stored:
  • Under group entries that usually have class groupOfNames in the member attribute. In this case, you can use an attribute filter as in the preceding example configuration. This filter searches for entries that match the supplied filter, which locates groups with a member attribute equal to the user’s DN. The filter then extracts the group entry’s CN as specified by from, and adds it to the user’s Roles.

  • In the user entry in the memberOf attribute. In this case you should use an attribute reference such as the following:

    <attribute-reference reference="memberOf" from="cn" to="Roles" />

    This reference gets all memberOf attributes from the user’s entry, extracts the CN as specified by from, and adds them to the user’s Roles.

Supported authentication mechanisms

LDAP realms support the following authentication mechanisms directly:

  • SASL: PLAIN, DIGEST-*, and SCRAM-*

  • HTTP (REST): Basic and Digest

LDAP Realm Principal Rewriting

Some SASL authentication mechanisms, such as GSSAPI, GS2-KRB5 and Negotiate, supply a username that needs to be cleaned up before you can use it to search LDAP servers.

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <ldap-realm name="ldap"
                     url="ldap://${org.infinispan.test.host.address}:10389"
                     principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                     credential="strongPassword">
            <name-rewriter> (1)
               <regex-principal-transformer name="domain-remover"
                                            pattern="(.*)@INFINISPAN\.ORG"
                                            replacement="$1"/>
            </name-rewriter>
            <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                              search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org">
               <attribute-mapping>
                  <attribute from="cn" to="Roles"
                             filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                             filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org" />
               </attribute-mapping>
               <user-password-mapper from="userPassword" />
            </identity-mapping>
         </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Defines a rewriter that extracts the username from the principal using a regular expression.

5.2.3. Trust Store Realms

Trust store realms use keystores that contain the public certificates of all clients that are allowed to connect to Infinispan server.

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <keystore path="server.p12" (1)
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path" (2)
                         keystore-password="secret" (3)
                         alias="server"/> (4)
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
         <truststore-realm path="trust.p12" (5)
                           relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                           keystore-password="secret"/>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Provides an SSL server identity with a keystore that contains server certificates.
2 Specifies that the file is relative to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.
3 Specifies a keystore password.
4 Specifies a keystore alias.
5 Provides a keystore that contains public certificates of all clients.
Supported authentication mechanisms

Trust store realms work with client-certificate authentication mechanisms:

  • SASL: EXTERNAL

  • HTTP (REST): CLIENT_CERT

5.2.4. Token Realms

Token realms use external services to validate tokens and require providers that are compatible with RFC-7662 (OAuth2 Token Introspection), such as KeyCloak.

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <token-realm name="token"
                      auth-server-url="https://oauth-server/auth/"> (1)
            <oauth2-introspection
                    introspection-url="https://oauth-server/auth/realms/infinispan/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect" (2)
                    client-id="infinispan-server" (3)
                    client-secret="1fdca4ec-c416-47e0-867a-3d471af7050f"/> (4)
         </token-realm>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Specifies the URL of the authentication server.
2 Specifies the URL of the token introspection endpoint.
3 Names the client identifier for Infinispan server.
4 Specifies the client secret for Infinispan server.
Supported authentication mechanisms

Token realms support the following authentication mechanisms:

  • SASL: OAUTHBEARER

  • HTTP (REST): Bearer

5.3. Creating Infinispan Server Identities

Server identities are defined within security realms and enable Infinispan servers to prove their identity to clients.

5.3.1. Setting Up SSL Identities

SSL identities use keystores that contain either a certificate or chain of certificates.

If security realms contain SSL identities, Infinispan servers automatically enable encryption for the endpoints that use those security realms.

Procedure
  1. Create a keystore for Infinispan server.

    Infinispan server supports the following keystore formats: JKS, JCEKS, PKCS12, BKS, BCFKS and UBER.

    In production environments, server certificates should be signed by a trusted Certificate Authority, either Root or Intermediate CA.

  2. Add the keystore to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

  3. Add a server-identities definition to the Infinispan server security realm.

  4. Specify the name of the keystore along with the password and alias.

SSL Identity Configuration

The following example configures an SSL identity for Infinispan server:

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities> (1)
            <ssl> (2)
               <keystore path="server.p12" (3)
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path" (4)
                         keystore-password="secret" (5)
                         alias="server"/> (6)
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Defines identities for Infinispan server.
2 Configures an SSL identity for Infinispan server.
3 Names a keystore that contains Infinispan server SSL certificates.
4 Specifies that the keystore is relative to the server/conf directory in $ISPN_HOME.
5 Specifies a keystore password.
6 Specifies a keystore alias.
Automatically Generating Keystores

Configure Infinispan servers to automatically generate keystores at startup.

Automatically generated keystores:

  • Should not be used in production environments.

  • Are generated whenever necessary; for example, while obtaining the first connection from a client.

  • Contain certificates that you can use directly in Hot Rod clients.

Procedure
  1. Include the generate-self-signed-certificate-host attribute for the keystore element in the server configuration.

  2. Specify a hostname for the server certificate as the value.

SSL server identity with a generated keystore
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret"
                         alias="server"
                         generate-self-signed-certificate-host="localhost"/> (1)
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 generates a keystore using localhost
Tuning SSL Protocols and Cipher Suites

You can configure the SSL engine, via the Infinispan server SSL identity, to use specific protocols and ciphers.

You must ensure that you set the correct ciphers for the protocol features you want to use; for example HTTP/2 ALPN.

Procedure
  1. Add the engine element to your Infinispan server SSL identity.

  2. Configure the SSL engine with the enabled-protocols and enabled-ciphersuites attributes.

SSL engine configuration
<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0
          https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities>
            <ssl>
               <keystore path="server.p12"
                         relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                         keystore-password="secret" alias="server"/>
               <engine enabled-protocols="TLSv1.2 TLSv1.1" (1)
                       enabled-ciphersuites="SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 (2)
                       SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256"/>
            </ssl>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Configures the SSL engine to use TLS v1 and v2 protocols.
2 Configures the SSL engine to use the specified cipher suites.

5.3.2. Setting Up Kerberos Identities

Kerberos identities use keytab files that contain service principal names and encrypted keys, derived from Kerberos passwords.

keytab files can contain both user and service account principals. However, Infinispan servers use service account principals only. As a result, Infinispan servers can provide identity to clients and allow clients to authenticate with Kerberos servers.

In most cases, you create unique principals for the Hot Rod and REST connectors. For example, you have a "datagrid" server in the "INFINISPAN.ORG" domain. In this case you should create the following service principals:

  • hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the Hot Rod service.

  • HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the REST service.

Procedure
  1. Create keytab files for the Hot Rod and REST services.

    Linux
    $ ktutil
    ktutil:  addent -password -p datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -k 1 -e aes256-cts
    Password for datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG: [enter your password]
    ktutil:  wkt http.keytab
    ktutil:  quit
    Microsoft Windows
    $ ktpass -princ HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -pass * -mapuser INFINISPAN\USER_NAME
    $ ktab -k http.keytab -a HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG
  2. Copy the keytab files to the $ISPN_HOME/server/conf directory.

  3. Add a server-identities definition to the Infinispan server security realm.

  4. Specify the location of keytab files that provide service principals to Hot Rod and REST connectors.

  5. Name the Kerberos service principals.

Kerberos Identity Configuration

The following example configures Kerberos identities for Infinispan server:

<security xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
          xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0">
   <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
         <server-identities> (1)
            <kerberos keytab-path="hotrod.keytab" (2)
                      principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG" (3)
                      required="true"/> (4)
            <kerberos keytab-path="http.keytab" (5)
                      principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG" (6)
                      required="true"/>
         </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
   </security-realms>
</security>
1 Defines identities for Infinispan server.
2 Specifies a keytab file that provides a Kerberos identity for the Hot Rod connector.
3 Names the Kerberos service principal for the Hot Rod connector.
4 Specifies that the keytab file must exist when Infinispan server starts.
5 Specifies a keytab file that provides a Kerberos identity for the REST connector.
6 Names the Kerberos service principal for the REST connector.

5.4. Configuring Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Configure Hot Rod and REST connectors with SASL authentication mechanisms to authenticate with clients.

5.4.1. Setting Up Hot Rod Authentication

Configure Hot Rod connectors to authenticate with clients to Infinispan server security realms using specific SASL authentication mechanisms .

Procedure
  1. Add an authentication definition to the Hot Rod connector configuration.

  2. Specify which Infinispan security realm the Hot Rod connector uses for authentication.

  3. Specify the SASL authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod endpoint to use.

  4. Configure SASL authentication properties as appropriate.

Hot Rod Authentication Configuration
Hot Rod connector with SCRAM, DIGEST, and PLAIN authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0
           https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0"
           socket-binding="default" security-realm="default"> (1)
   <hotrod-connector name="hotrod">
      <authentication>
         <sasl mechanisms="SCRAM-SHA-512 SCRAM-SHA-384 SCRAM-SHA-256 (2)
                           SCRAM-SHA-1 DIGEST-SHA-512 DIGEST-SHA-384
                           DIGEST-SHA-256 DIGEST-SHA DIGEST-MD5 PLAIN"
               server-name="infinispan" (3)
               qop="auth"/> (4)
      </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
</endpoints>
1 enables authentication against the security realm named "default".
2 specifies SASL mechanisms to use for authentication.
3 defines the name that Infinispan servers declare to clients. The server name should match the client configuration.
4 enables auth QoP.
Hot Rod connector with Kerberos authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0"
           socket-binding="default" security-realm="default">
   <hotrod-connector name="hotrod">
      <authentication>
         <sasl mechanisms="GSSAPI GS2-KRB5" (1)
               server-name="datagrid" (2)
               server-principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"/> (3)
      </authentication>
   </hotrod-connector>
</endpoints>
1 Enables the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 mechanisms for Kerberos authentication.
2 Defines the Infinispan server name, which is equivalent to the Kerberos service name.
3 Specifies the Kerberos identity for the server.
Hot Rod Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Infinispan supports the following SASL authentications mechanisms with the Hot Rod connector:

Authentication mechanism Description Related details

PLAIN

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use PLAIN authentication with encrypted connections only.

Similar to the Basic HTTP mechanism.

DIGEST-*

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support DIGEST-MD5, DIGEST-SHA, DIGEST-SHA-256, DIGEST-SHA-384, and DIGEST-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

SCRAM-*

Uses salt values in addition to hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support SCRAM-SHA, SCRAM-SHA-256, SCRAM-SHA-384, and SCRAM-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

GSSAPI

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

GS2-KRB5

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

EXTERNAL

Uses client certificates.

Similar to the CLIENT_CERT HTTP mechanism.

OAUTHBEARER

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Similar to the BEARER_TOKEN HTTP mechanism.

SASL Quality of Protection (QoP)

If SASL mechanisms support integrity and privacy protection settings, you can add them to your Hot Rod connector configuration with the qop attribute.

QoP setting Description

auth

Authentication only.

auth-int

Authentication with integrity protection.

auth-conf

Authentication with integrity and privacy protection.

SASL Policies

SASL policies let you control which authentication mechanisms Hot Rod connectors can use.

Policy Description Default value

forward-secrecy

Use only SASL mechanisms that support forward secrecy between sessions. This means that breaking into one session does not automatically provide information for breaking into future sessions.

false

pass-credentials

Use only SASL mechanisms that require client credentials.

false

no-plain-text

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to simple plain passive attacks.

false

no-active

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to active, non-dictionary, attacks.

false

no-dictionary

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to passive dictionary attacks.

false

no-anonymous

Do not use SASL mechanisms that accept anonymous logins.

true

Infinispan cache authorization restricts access to caches based on roles and permissions. If you configure cache authorization, you can then set <no-anonymous value=false /> to allow anonymous login and delegate access logic to cache authorization.

Hot Rod connector with SASL policy configuration
<hotrod-connector socket-binding="hotrod" cache-container="default">
   <authentication security-realm="ApplicationRealm">
      <sasl server-name="myhotrodserver"
            mechanisms="PLAIN DIGEST-MD5 GSSAPI EXTERNAL" (1)
            qop="auth">
         <policy> (2)
            <no-active value="true" />
            <no-anonymous value="true" />
            <no-plain-text value="true" />
         </policy>
      </sasl>
   </authentication>
</hotrod-connector>
1 Specifies multiple SASL authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod connector.
2 Defines policies for SASL mechanisms.

As a result of the preceding configuration, the Hot Rod connector uses the GSSAPI mechanism because it is the only mechanism that complies with all policies.

5.4.2. Setting Up REST Authentication

Configure REST connectors to authenticate with clients to Infinispan server security realms using specific SASL authentication mechanisms .

Procedure
  1. Add an authentication definition to the REST connector configuration.

  2. Specify which Infinispan security realm the REST connector uses for authentication.

  3. Specify the SASL authentication mechanisms for the REST endpoint to use.

  4. Configure SASL authentication properties as appropriate.

REST Authentication Configuration
REST connector with BASIC and DIGEST authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0"
           socket-binding="default" security-realm="default"> (1)
   <rest-connector name="rest">
      <authentication mechanisms="DIGEST BASIC"/> (2)
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>
1 Enables authentication against the security realm named "default".
2 Specifies SASL mechanisms to use for authentication
REST connector with Kerberos authentication
<endpoints xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xsi:schemaLocation="urn:infinispan:server:11.0 https://infinispan.org/schemas/infinispan-server-11.0.xsd"
           xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:11.0"
           socket-binding="default" security-realm="default">
   <rest-connector name="rest">
      <authentication mechanisms="SPNEGO" (1)
                      server-principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"/> (2)
   </rest-connector>
</endpoints>
1 Enables the SPENGO mechanism for Kerberos authentication.
2 Specifies the Kerberos identity for the server.
REST Endpoint Authentication Mechanisms

Infinispan supports the following authentications mechanisms with the REST connector:

Authentication mechanism Description Related details

BASIC

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use BASIC authentication with encrypted connections only.

Corresponds to the Basic HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the PLAIN SASL mechanism.

DIGEST

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. REST connectors support SHA-512, SHA-256 and MD5 hashing algorithms.

Corresponds to the Digest HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to DIGEST-* SASL mechanisms.

SPNEGO

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Corresponds to the Negotiate HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 SASL mechanisms.

BEARER_TOKEN

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Corresponds to the Bearer HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to OAUTHBEARER SASL mechanism.

CLIENT_CERT

Uses client certificates.

Similar to the EXTERNAL SASL mechanism.

6. Remotely Executing Server-Side Tasks

Define and add tasks to Infinispan servers that you can invoke from the Infinispan command line interface, REST API, or from Hot Rod clients.

You can implement tasks as custom Java classes or define scripts in languages such as JavaScript.

6.1. Creating Server Tasks

Create custom task implementations and add them to Infinispan servers.

6.1.1. Server Tasks

Infinispan server tasks are classes that extend the org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask interface and generally include the following method calls:

setTaskContext()

Allows access to execution context information including task parameters, cache references on which tasks are executed, and so on. In most cases, implementations store this information locally and use it when tasks are actually executed.

getName()

Returns unique names for tasks. Clients invoke tasks with these names.

getExecutionMode()

Returns the execution mode for tasks.

  • TaskExecutionMode.ONE_NODE only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.

  • TaskExecutionMode.ALL_NODES Infinispan uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes. For example, server tasks that invoke stream processing need to be executed on a single node because stream processing is distributed to all nodes.

call()

Computes a result. This method is defined in the java.util.concurrent.Callable interface and is invoked with server tasks.

Server task implementations must adhere to service loader pattern requirements. For example, implementations must have a zero-argument constructors.

The following HelloTask class implementation provides an example task that has one parameter:

package example;

import org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask;
import org.infinispan.tasks.TaskContext;

public class HelloTask implements ServerTask<String> {

   private TaskContext ctx;

   @Override
   public void setTaskContext(TaskContext ctx) {
      this.ctx = ctx;
   }

   @Override
   public String call() throws Exception {
      String name = (String) ctx.getParameters().get().get("name");
      return "Hello " + name;
   }

   @Override
   public String getName() {
      return "hello-task";
   }

}

6.1.2. Deploying Server Tasks to Infinispan Servers

Add your custom server task classes to Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites

Stop any running Infinispan servers. Infinispan does not support runtime deployment of custom classes.

Procedure
  1. Package your server task implementation in a JAR file.

  2. Add a META-INF/services/org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask file that contains the fully qualified names of server tasks, for example:

    example.HelloTask
  3. Copy the JAR file to the $ISPN_HOME/server/lib directory of your Infinispan server.

  4. Add your classes to the deserialization whitelist in your Infinispan configuration. Alternatively set the whitelist using system properties.

6.2. Creating Server Scripts

Create custom scripts and add them to Infinispan servers.

6.2.1. Server Scripts

Infinispan server scripting is based on the javax.script API and is compatible with any JVM-based ScriptEngine implementation. Nashorn is the default JDK ScriptEngine and provides JavaScript capabilities.

Hello World Script Example

The following script provides a simple example that runs on a single Infinispan server, has one parameter, and uses JavaScript:

// mode=local,language=javascript,parameters=[greetee]
"Hello " + greetee

When you run the preceding script, you pass a value for the greetee parameter and Infinispan returns "Hello ${value}".

Script Metadata

Metadata provides additional information about scripts that Infinispan servers use when running scripts.

Script metadata are property=value pairs that you add to comments in the first lines of scripts, such as the following example:

// name=test, language=javascript
// mode=local, parameters=[a,b,c]
  • Use comment styles that match the scripting language (//, ;;, #).

  • Separate property=value pairs with commas.

  • Separate values with single (') or double (") quote characters.

Table 1. Metadata Properties
Property Description

mode

Defines the exection mode and has the following values:

local only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.

distributed Infinispan uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes.

language

Specifies the ScriptEngine that executes the script.

extension

Specifies filename extensions as an alternative method to set the ScriptEngine.

role

Specifies roles that users must have to execute scripts.

parameters

Specifies an array of valid parameter names for this script. Invocations which specify parameters not included in this list cause exceptions.

datatype

Optionally sets the MediaType (MIME type) for storing data as well as parameter and return values. This property is useful for remote clients that support particular data formats only.

Currently you can set only text/plain; charset=utf-8 to use the String UTF-8 format for data.

Script Bindings

Infinispan exposes internal objects as bindings for script execution.

Binding Description

cache

Specifies the cache against which the script is run.

marshaller

Specifies the marshaller to use for serializing data to the cache.

cacheManager

Specifies the cacheManager for the cache.

scriptingManager

Specifies the instance of the script manager that runs the script. You can use this binding to run other scripts from a script.

Script Parameters

Infinispan lets you pass named parameters as bindings for running scripts.

Parameters are name,value pairs, where name is a string and value is any value that the marshaller can interpret.

The following example script has two parameters, multiplicand and multiplier. The script takes the value of multiplicand and multiplies it with the value of multiplier.

// mode=local,language=javascript
multiplicand * multiplier

When you run the preceding script, Infinispan responds with the result of the expression evaluation.

6.2.2. Adding Scripts to Infinispan Servers

Use the command line interface to add scripts to Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites

Infinispan servers store scripts in the ___script_cache cache. If you enable cache authorization, users must have the ___script_manager role to access ___script_cache.

Procedure
  1. Define scripts as required.

    For example, create a file named multiplication.js that runs on a single Infinispan server, has two parameters, and uses JavaScript to multiply a given value:

    // mode=local,language=javascript
    multiplicand * multiplier
  2. Open a CLI connection to Infinispan and use the task command to upload your scripts as in the following example:

    [//containers/default]> task upload --file=multiplication.js multiplication
  3. Verify that your scripts are available.

    [//containers/default]> ls tasks
    multiplication

6.2.3. Programmatically Creating Scripts

Add scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface as in the following example:

RemoteCache<String, String> scriptCache = cacheManager.getCache("___script_cache");
scriptCache.put("multiplication.js",
  "// mode=local,language=javascript\n" +
  "multiplicand * multiplier\n");

6.3. Running Server-Side Tasks and Scripts

Execute tasks and custom scripts on Infinispan servers.

6.3.1. Running Tasks and Scripts

Use the command line interface to run tasks and scripts on Infinispan servers.

Prerequisites
  • Open a CLI connection to Infinispan.

Procedure

Use the task command to run tasks and scripts on Infinispan servers, as in the following examples:

  • Execute a script named multipler.js and specify two parameters:

    [//containers/default]> task exec multipler.js -Pmultiplicand=10 -Pmultiplier=20
    200.0
  • Execute a task named @@cache@names to retrieve a list of all available caches:

    //containers/default]> task exec @@cache@names
    ["___protobuf_metadata","mycache","___script_cache"]

6.3.2. Programmatically Running Scripts

Call the execute() method to run scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface, as in the following example:

RemoteCache<String, Integer> cache = cacheManager.getCache();
// Create parameters for script execution.
Map<String, Object> params = new HashMap<>();
params.put("multiplicand", 10);
params.put("multiplier", 20);
// Run the script with the parameters.
Object result = cache.execute("multiplication.js", params);

6.3.3. Programmatically Running Tasks

Call the execute() method to run tasks with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface, as in the following example:

// Add configuration for a locally running server.
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.addServer().host("127.0.0.1").port(11222);

// Connect to the server.
RemoteCacheManager cacheManager = new RemoteCacheManager(builder.build());

// Retrieve the remote cache.
RemoteCache<String, String> cache = cacheManager.getCache();

// Create task parameters.
Map<String, String> parameters = new HashMap<>();
parameters.put("name", "developer");

// Run the server task.
String greet = cache.execute("hello-task", parameters);
System.out.println(greet);

7. Performing Rolling Upgrades

Upgrade Infinispan without downtime or data loss. You can perform rolling upgrades for Infinispan servers to start using a more recent version of Infinispan.

This section explains how to upgrade Infinispan servers, see the appropriate documentation for your Hot Rod client for upgrade procedures.

7.1. Rolling Upgrades

From a high-level, you do the following to perform rolling upgrades:

  1. Set up a target cluster. The target cluster is the Infinispan version to which you want to migrate data. The source cluster is the Infinispan deployment that is currently in use. After the target cluster is running, you configure all clients to point to it instead of the source cluster.

  2. Synchronize data from the source cluster to the target cluster.

7.2. Setting Up Target Clusters

  1. Start the target cluster with unique network properties or a different JGroups cluster name to keep it separate from the source cluster.

  2. Configure a RemoteCacheStore on the target cluster for each cache you want to migrate from the source cluster.

    RemoteCacheStore settings
    • remote-server must point to the source cluster via the outbound-socket-binding property.

    • remoteCacheName must match the cache name on the source cluster.

    • hotrod-wrapping must be true (enabled).

    • shared must be true (enabled).

    • purge must be false (disabled).

    • passivation must be false (disabled).

    • protocol-version matches the Hot Rod protocol version of the source cluster.

      Example RemoteCacheStore Configuration
      <distributed-cache>
         <remote-store cache="MyCache" socket-timeout="60000" tcp-no-delay="true" protocol-version="2.5" shared="true" hotrod-wrapping="true" purge="false" passivation="false">
            <remote-server outbound-socket-binding="remote-store-hotrod-server"/>
         </remote-store>
      </distributed-cache>
      ...
      <socket-binding-group name="standard-sockets" default-interface="public" port-offset="${jboss.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
        ...
        <outbound-socket-binding name="remote-store-hotrod-server">
           <remote-destination host="198.51.100.0" port="11222"/>
        </outbound-socket-binding>
        ...
      </socket-binding-group>
  3. Configure the target cluster to handle all client requests instead of the source cluster:

    1. Configure all clients to point to the target cluster instead of the source cluster.

    2. Restart each client node.

      The target cluster lazily loads data from the source cluster on demand via RemoteCacheStore.

7.3. Synchronizing Data from Source Clusters

  1. Call the synchronizeData() method in the TargetMigrator interface. Do one of the following on the target cluster for each cache that you want to migrate:

    JMX

    Invoke the synchronizeData operation and specify the hotrod parameter on the RollingUpgradeManager MBean.

    CLI
    $ bin/cli.sh --connect controller=127.0.0.1:9990 -c "/subsystem=datagrid-infinispan/cache-container=clustered/distributed-cache=MyCache:synchronize-data(migrator-name=hotrod)"

    Data migrates to all nodes in the target cluster in parallel, with each node receiving a subset of the data.

    Use the following parameters to tune the operation:

    • read-batch configures the number of entries to read from the source cluster at a time. The default value is 10000.

    • write-threads configures the number of threads used to write data. The default value is the number of processors available.

      For example:

      synchronize-data(migrator-name=hotrod, read-batch=100000, write-threads=3)

  2. Disable the RemoteCacheStore on the target cluster. Do one of the following:

    JMX

    Invoke the disconnectSource operation and specify the hotrod parameter on the RollingUpgradeManager MBean.

    CLI
    $ bin/cli.sh --connect controller=127.0.0.1:9990 -c "/subsystem=datagrid-infinispan/cache-container=clustered/distributed-cache=MyCache:disconnect-source(migrator-name=hotrod)"
  3. Decommission the source cluster.